Annotated Bibliography

Research Using Social Media Content

Abbott, Wendy, Jessie Donaghey, Joanna Hare, and Peta Hopkins. “An Instagram Is Worth a Thousand Words: An Industry Panel and Audience Q&A.” Library Hi Tech News 30, no. 7 (August 2013): 1–6.
Bond University Library hosted a panel at the Australian Library and Information Association’s Information Online Conference to discuss how the university library utilizes Instagram for promoting the library, connecting the library’s physical and digital spaces, enhancing the library’s online presence, and interacting with patrons. The panelists urge attendees to set goals when  experimentally using Instagram or other social media, and judge their success not by how many likes or comments the accounts or posts receive but by the fulfillment of their original goals.
Alper, Meryl. “War on Instagram: Framing Conflict Photojournalism with Mobile Photography Apps.” New Media & Society 16, no. 8 (2013): 1233-1248.
In 2010, photojournalist Damon Winter won third place in the “Feature Picture Story-Newspaper” category of the Pictures of the Year International Contest for photos taken with the mobile app Hipstamatic of the daily life of soldiers in the First Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment of the US Army deployed in Afghanistan. His photos exemplify an ongoing debate within photojournalism revolving around the use of mobile apps that add filters to photographs as a mark of the de-professionalization of the field. Alper contextualizes this debate by discussing the framework in which photography, aesthetics, reporting, manipulation, and editorializing reside historically and currently.
“Black Twitter Project.” USC Annenberg Innovation Lab. September 5, 2014. http://www.archive.annenberglab.com/projects/dsail-black-twitter-project.
This entry announced a research project exploring the link between popular culture and civic engagement among some members of the online community known as "Black Twitter." The announcement recounts the goals of the project as well as the researchers who will be working on the project.
Asur, Sitaram, and Bernardo Huberman. “Predicting the Future with Social Media.” 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology 1 (2010): 492–99.
Asur and Huberman designed a model which utilizes data acquired through regularly crawling Twitter’s feed to calculate the rate of generation of tweets about a particular movie. The model, which uses the retrieved data to predict movie revenue, outperforms current market-based models. Asur and Huberman then demonstrate that their model can be generalized to predict revenue of other products and speculate that it could be further generalized to predict non-revenue-based outcomes.
Banks, John, and Sal Humphreys. “The Labour of User Co-Creators: Emergent Social Network Markets?” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14, no. 4 (November 2008): 401–18. doi:10.1177/1354856508094660.
Banks and Humphreys weighed the ramifications of co-creation between professionals and the user-generated content of amateurs by referring to a previous ethnographic study by Banks revolving around the game designers of Trainz, a railroad creation simulator created by Auran Games and fans of Trainz. They viewed the issue from the perspective of both the paid professional whose job might be threatened by unpaid creators, and the unpaid creators who could theoretically face exploitation from companies. Future research, according to Banks and Humphreys, should focus on how unpaid amateur creators are shifting these new developing markets.
Mark Berman, “Protests over Baltimore Spread to New York and Across the Country,” The Washington Post, April 30, 2015, accessed July 30, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2015/04/29/protests-over-baltimore-spread-to-new-york-boston-and-minneapolis/
An article describing the spread of protests in Baltimore over the death of Freddie Gray to cities around the country, including New York, Boston, Minneapolis, and Denver. It provides embedded examples of social media posts related to the protests by activists in the cities where the protests occurred.
Beyer, Yngvil. “Using DiscoverText for Large Scale Twitter Harvesting.” Microform & Digitization Review 41 (September 2012): 121–25.
The National Library of Norway’s mission statement includes “preserving the nation’s national memory,” and, through the proliferation of tweets, Twitter has become a major source of that memory. Consequently, Norway needs a program capable of harvesting, coding, and storing vast amounts of tweets for future research. Beyer suggests the adoption of DiscoverText for this purpose as it is capable of capturing social media data, analyzing it, and exporting it in the form of text files.
Bounegru, Liliana. “What Data Journalists Need to Do Differently.” Harvard Business Review, May 20, 2014, accessed July 28, 2015. https://hbr.org/2014/05/what-data-journalists-need-to-do-differently/
Bounegru discusses the increased prevalence of data journalism, and its potential role in returning journalism to its its principles. For example, she sees data journalism as a way to highlight stories not otherwise covered in the media, and the effect this has on under-represented populations. She highlights some of the finalists' stories from the Data Journalism Awards in 2014, including work exposing the number of deaths occurring to migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea to seek refuge in Europe, work exploring the effect of China's online censorship policies, and work exposing the lack of benefits provided to Appalachian coal miners who develop black lung. She names social media as one source for this data, as well as old news articles, and filed court claims.
boyd, dana, and Kate Crawford. "Critical Questions for Big Data: Provocations for a Cultural, Technological, and Scholarly Phenomenon." Information, Community & Society 15, no. 5 (June 2012): 662-79. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878
boyd and Crawford examine the unanswered questions in using “big data” for research. They point out several methodological and ethical quandaries that have yet to be solved by researchers who use big data. They discuss several fallacies present within the mythos of big data, particularly regarding the misconception that big data will provide objectivity and accuracy in its conclusions. Additionally, they point out that the availability of big data does not mean that researchers should be unregulated in how they use it. boyd and Crawford conclude that big data has initiated cultural shifts in research, the implications of which should be carefully considered.
Bradshaw, Paul. “How to be a Data Journalist.”The Guardian, October 1, 2010, accessed July 28, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2010/oct/01/data-journalism-how-to-guide
Bradshow discusses the basics of data journalism and how to conduct it. He begins by explaining where to gather the data and then how to interpret it using data visualization techniques. He gives advice for how to get started, and links to tools to help with gathering and merging data, visualizing data, and crowdsourcing. He emphasizes the need to for journalists to ask good questions about the data, and to start with a topic that the budding data journalist is already familiar with.
Bruns, Axel, and Tim Highfield. "Political Networks on Twitter: Tweeting the Queensland State Election." Information, Community & Society 16, no. 5 (June 2013): 667-691. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2013.782328.
Bruns and Highfield explore the patterns of social media use by politicians during the 2012 elections in Australia. They exclusively analyze Twitter data to determine which candidates and party organizations adopted social media during the campaign most widely. They also identified different approaches that they used, and if particular approaches correlated to specific candidates. They tracked 80 candidates using Twitter and mapped their tweets, interactions, and hashtag use to determine the strategies of the different candidates on Twitter. They found that public opinion influenced the strategies adopted by the candidates and that the context of this particular election affected their results.
Carah, Nicholas. “Curators of Databases: Circulating Images, Managing Attention and Making Value on Social Media.” Media International Australia. 150 (February 2014): 137–42.
Nicholas Carah examines how social media aids the construction of material culture spaces and the value of information found within images from sites such as Instagram. The algorithms that each website employs to circulate images are intuitively learned by active users, who can alter their activity in order to reach a broader audience. Carah focuses on Facebook and Instagram as platforms that cultivate a large amount of data and whose users act as curators of their personal databases by choosing what to portray about themselves. Social media content is not to be taken as entirely reflective of society, as there are analytical structures and personal curation that influence how information is disseminated.
Choi, Youngok, and Sue Yeon Syn. “Exploring Social Tags in a Digitized Humanities Online Collection.” Journal of Digital Humanities 3, no. 1 (January 2014). http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/3-1/exploring-social-tags-in-a-digitized-humanities-online-collection/.
Choi and Syn conduct an empirical analysis of tagging values and behavior of scholars and users on the digital collection site Networked Infrastructure for Nineteenth-Century Electronic Scholarship (NINES). According to the authors, few scholars have studied the influence of tagging on digitized primary sources and the values researchers assign through tags. Tagging provides insight into how users find, interpret, and share digital sources.
Cohen, Dan. “Digital Ephemera and the Calculus of Importance.” Dan Cohen (blog), May 17, 2010. https://dancohen.org/2010/05/17/digital-ephemera-and-the-calculus-of-importance/.
Cohen advocates for the application of the calculus of importance (i.e. sampling by square root probabilities) to archival selection of digital ephemera, such as tweets. This would allow archivists to spend most of their time and resources on the tweets and tweeters which seem most likely to be important in the future without disregarding the seemingly less important content.
Collins, Samuel, Matthew Durington, Glenn Daniels, Natalie Demyan, David Rico, Julian Beckles, and Cara Heasley. “Tagging Culture: Building a Public Anthropology through Social Media.” Human Organization 72, no. 4 (December 2013): 358–68. doi: 10.17730/humo.72.4.v5x0205248427516 .
Through analysis of YouTube videos created by students involved in Anthropology by the Wire, Colins et al. argue that networked publics, “the spaces and audiences that are bound together through technological networks,” leave data trails that allow for the investigation of connections made on the web via the creation of “user networks.”  Using examples, statistical analysis, and network visualization, the authors show the limited viewership of the YouTube videos outside of a small, local community.
"Company Info.” Facebook Newsroomhttps://newsroom.fb.com/company-info/.
Facebook’s website lists the company’s current projects as well as general user statistics.
Dixon, Kitsy. “Feminist Online Identity: Analyzing the Presence of Hashtag Feminism.” Journal of Arts & Humanities 3, no. 7 (2014): 34–40. https://theartsjournal.org/index.php/site/article/view/509.
Via Twitter and Facebook, Dixon looks at self-identified hashtag feminists, their followers, how they are influencing internet activism, and how they are redefining feminism. Dixon explores the issue of hashtag feminism both in terms of the payoffs, such as safe online places for discussion, as well as the backlash, such as trolling, harassment, and miscommunication.
Flamini, Roland. “Smithsonian Museum Collects Occupy Wall Street Memorabilia.” The Washington Times, November 30, 2011, accessed July 21, 2015. https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/nov/30/national-museum-of-american-history-collects-occup/
Flamini explains the materials collected from the Occupy Wall Street protests by the Smithsonian. It describes posters, signs, and other ephemera collected by the Smithsonian Museum of American History. In the article, the Smithsonian describes their importance to the historical record of the event.
Gallow, Lauren, and Ellen Caldwell. “Art & Instagram: Falling Down the Rabbit Hole.” New American Paintings Bloghttp://newamericanpaintings.com/blog/art-instagram-falling-down-rabbit-hole .
Gallow and Caldwell argue there is an emerging art market on Instagram that fosters a greater connection between consumer and artist. The authors describe their experiences “falling down the rabbit hole” on Instagram and finding new artists while also connecting with other users. Examples of different accounts, with corresponding screenshots and links to their Instagram page, provide evidence of this “alternative art market.”
Garcia-Vargas, Andrea. “Tweeting From Inside The Bell Jar.” Model View Culture. August 11, 2014. https://modelviewculture.com/pieces/tweeting-from-inside-the-bell-jar.
In this online editorial, Garcia-Vargas documents her struggle with using Facebook and Twitter as a tool for self-care, connecting with people, and engaging in discussions with other marginalized communities. The author provides a unique perspective on the positive and negative influences involvement with social media can have on an individual user, one that is not commonly focused on when discussing the advantages and drawbacks to social media. When using social media, boundaries have to be set in order to maintain self-care.
Griffith, Erin. “Social Data as a Business Is Dead. Long Live Big Data Services.” Fortune. April 16, 2014. http://fortune.com/2014/04/16/social-data-as-a-business-is-dead-long-live-big-data-services/.
The acquisition of Gnip, “a company which packages, filters, and sells data from social media streams,” by Twitter has ramifications for other big data service providers. Social media companies realize the value in the data their programs create and the profits that come from selling this data. In an interview with Fortune magazine, Rob Bailey, CEO, and Nick Halsted, CTO and founder, of Datashift, another contracted seller of Twitter data, discuss the implications of Twitter’s purchase of Gnip on their company.
Hall, Hazel. “Social Media and Public Libraries: A Doctoral Defence in Finland.” Hazel Hall (blog). March 17, 2014. https://hazelhall.org/2014/03/17/social-media-and-public-libraries-a-doctoral-defence-in-finland/.
Hazel Hall, Professor of Social Informatics at Edinburgh Napier University, summarizes a recent trip to Finland to act as an opponent professor for Maria Kronqvist-Berg, who was defending her PhD thesis, Social Media and Public Libraries: Exploring Information Activities of Library Professionals and Users. Instead of focusing on a single application or use, Kronqvist-Berg explores “the interface where public library staff, services delivered by social media, and library users meet.” Framed around theories of information behavior, information use, and practice theory, Kronqvist-Berg concludes that social media use is not separate from other library services as a way to disseminate information, but, instead, social media acts in tandem with other library services.
Harvey, Sylvia “Apps Make Sense of Social Media Noise,” Cornell Chronicle, December 13, 2013, accessed July 28, 2015. http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2013/12/apps-make-sense-social-media-noise
An article describing a research project at Cornell University that created CityBeat and ParkBeat, applications that aggregate data from Twitter and Instagram to identify breaking news based on geo-tagged posts. The article explains the applications after Mor Naaman, the applications' creator, showcased his applications to Journalists in Manhattan.
Harvey, Sylvia “Apps Make Sense of Social Media Noise,” Cornell Chronicle, December 13, 2013, accessed July 28, 2015. http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2013/12/apps-make-sense-social-media-noise
An article describing a research project at Cornell University that created CityBeat and ParkBeat, applications that aggregate data from Twitter and Instagram to identify breaking news based on geo-tagged posts. The article explains the applications after Mor Naaman, the applications' creator, showcased his applications to Journalists in Manhattan.
Herring, Susan, Kir Job-Sluder, Rebecca Scheckler, and Sasha Barab. “Searching for Safety Online: Managing “Trolling” in a Feminist Forum.” The Information Society 18, (2002), 371-384. http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~fulk/620overview_files/Herring.pdf
A study exploring the effects of trolling behaviors in an online community. The authors examine how an online feminist group responds to attacks by a troll to learn how non-mainstream groups balance inclusive ideals with safety needs. The study's ultimate aim was find ways to minimize and manage trolling behavior in online communities like the feminist group.
Haustein, Stefanie, Timothy D. Bowman, Kim Holmberg, Isabella Peters, and Vincent Larivière. “Astrophysicists on Twitter: An in-Depth Analysis of Tweeting and Scientific Publication Behavior.” Aslib Journal of Information Management 66, no. 3 (2014): 279–96. doi:10.1108/AJIM-09-2013-0081.
This study examines the tweets of astrophysicists in comparison to their publication and citation rates. Findings demonstrate that astrophysicists who tweet more publish less, and there is little correlation between the topics of tweets and the topics of published papers. The researchers believe that similar methodology could be applied to test the public impact of other scientists’ tweets.
Hebblethwaite, Cordelia. “15 Social Media Tips and Tools for Journalists.” John S. Knight Journalism Fellowships at Stanford, October 30, 2014, accessed July 28, 2015. http://knight.stanford.edu/life-fellow/2014/15-social-media-tips-and-tools-for-journalists/.
Cordelia Hebblethwate, a journalism student at Stanford University, summarizes some tools meant to interpret or display social media data. She explains each tool's use to journalists while they research, or try to find new stories. The tools she reviews are: Tame, Twitter lists, Tweetdeck's "magic button," Topsy, Trendsmap, TinEye & Google Reverse Image, Crowd Tangle, Gramfeed, Nuzzle & Newsle, LinkedIn, Facebook Graph Search, Dataminr, Storyful Newswire, SAM, and Sysomos.
Hern, Alex. “Reddit, Imgur and Twitch Team up as ‘Derp’ for Social Data Research.” The Guardian. August 18, 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/aug/18/reddit-imgur-twitch-derp-social-data.
The Digital Ecologies Research Partnership (Derp) will provide academic researchers greater access to the data of sites like Reddit, Twitch, and Imgur to foster improved, more inclusive research. While much of the data is currently publicly available via API, Derp will make the data more easily accessible in a format that allows for comparison across platforms.
Hochman, Nadav, and Raz Schwartz. "Visualizing Instagram: Tracing Cultural Visual Rhythms," International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (May 2012): 6-9. http://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM12/paper/viewFile/4782/5091.
Hochman and Schwartz anticipate that patterns can be discovered using Instagram. Using Cultural Analytics visualization techniques, they examine images to reveal visual rhythms, spatio-temporal deviations of tone, cultural productivity rates, and cultural color affinities in New York City and Tokyo. The authors also posit that visualization research can use Instagram and its features, such as filters and tags, over a greater number of locales and durations.
Juris, Jeffrey. “Reflections on #Occupy Everywhere: Social Media, Public Space, and Emerging Logics of Aggregation.” American Ethnologist 39, no. 2 (May 2012): 259–79. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2012.01362.x.
Juris focuses on the powerful impact that social media had on the #Occupy movement and compares and contrasts the #Occupy movement with other examples of global activism. Focusing on #OccupyBoston, Juris contends that social media contributed to the rise of aggregation and the assembly of large groups of protesters through quick, cheap communication. The creation of networks and a shared sense of identity allowed for the #Occupy movement to last as long as it did, but it also created challenges with its non-hierarchical structure.
Kang, Jay Caspian. “Our Demand is Simple: Stop Killing Us.” The New York Times Magazine. May 4, 2015, accessed July 21, 2015. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/10/magazine/our-demand-is-simple-stop-killing-us.html?_r=0
An article describing the impact of black social media activists on the Ferguson protests and the other activist movements around the country protesting police brutality. By highlighting two young activists, DeRay McKesson and Johnetta Elzie, Kang explains the role these activists play as citizen journalists when they document the protests and post videos, statuses, and pictures on social media.
Kaplan, Zachary. “The Accidental Archivist: Criticism on Facebook, and How to Preserve It.” Rhizome.org. May 29, 2014. http://rhizome.org/editorial/2014/may/29/preserving-facebook-criticism/.
The editorial discusses the need for and complexity of preserving culturally and/or historically relevant material from complex, dynamic platforms such as Facebook. Kaplan notes a program that digital conservator Dragan Espenschied is developing which would preserve Facebook data through individuals accessing a proxy server, and then would record user actions and browser actions. The complexities of this program showcase the difficulties in preserving a site like Facebook due to the level of user participation needed and Facebook’s complex privacy controls.
Krikorian, Raffi. “Introducing Twitter Data Grants.” The Official Twitter Blog. February 5, 2014. https://blog.twitter.com/engineering/en_us/a/2014/introducing-twitter-data-grants.html
A brief blog post announcing the Twitter Data Grants program, an opportunity that grants chosen researchers free access to Twitter data. The blog post announces the proposal application process and deadline. They credit Gnip for enabling them to provide access to their data.
---. “Twitter #DataGrants Selections.” The Official Twitter Blog. April 17, 2014. https://blog.twitter.com/engineering/en_us/a/2014/twitter-datagrants-selections.html.
On April 17, 2014, Twitter announced the recipients of their #DataGrant pilot program, designed to give researchers and institutions access to Twitter’s public and historical data. The awarded research topics were: "Foodborne Gastrointestinal Illness Surveillance," "Disaster Information Analysis System; Diffusion and Effectiveness of Cancer Early Detection Campaigns," "Do Happy People Take Happy Images? Measuring Happiness of Cities," "Using GeoSocial Intelligence to Model Urban Flooding," and "Exploring the Relationship Between Tweets and Sports Team Performance."
Latonero, Mark, and Irina Shklovski. “Emergency Management, Twitter, and Social Media Evangelism.” International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management 3, no. 4 (2011): 1–16. http://www.academia.edu/1071890/Emergency_Management_Twitter_and_Social_Media_Evangelism.
Latonero and Shklovski speak with emergency management professionals from New York City and Los Angeles about the use of social media, specifically Twitter, in their work. They combine the findings from their conversations with an extensive case study of the Los Angeles Fire Department’s use of Twitter and other social media via an information evangelist. Conclusions support the employment of a social evangelist in emergency management organizations and indicate that Twitter can be used by public information officers in two main ways during an emergency, by dispersing information to the public and gathering information from the public.
Lichterman, Joseph. “How a Group of Researchers Tried to Use Social Media and Algorithms to Find Breaking News.” Nieman Lab, June 2, 2015, accessed July 28, 2015. http://www.niemanlab.org/2015/06/how-a-group-of-researchers-tried-to-use-social-media-data-and-algorithms-to-find-breaking-news/
Lichterman explains how CityBeat, an application meant to find breaking news based on geo-tagged social media posts, failed to report a Harlem fire more quickly than traditional media outlets. He explains that by the time enough people Tweet about an event for the program's algorithm to report the story, it has already been reported elsewhere. For this reason, CityBeat might be most useful for covering planned events rather than breaking news, and news agencies have been reluctant to adopt the tool.
Messerschmidt, Jana. “Twitter Welcomes Gnip to the Flock.” The Official Twitter Blog. April 15, 2014. https://blog.twitter.com/official/en_us/a/2014/twitter-welcomes-gnip-to-the-flock.html.
With the goal of making its data more accessible to researchers, developers, and businesses, Twitter announces its purchase of Gnip, a company that was already critically involved in processing and delivering data to Twitter’s partners. Together, Twitter and Gnip hope to develop better datasets and extend Twitter’s data platform.
Needham, Alex. “Richard Prince vs. Suicide Girls in an Instagram Price War.” The Guardian. May 27, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/may/27/suicide-girls-richard-prince-copying-instagram
This article recounts artist Richard Prince’s Instagram artwork, where he printed copies of other people’s Instagram photos with his comments underneath. None of the photographer’s were contacted for permission before he sold many of their photographs for thousands of dollars. One Instagram user decided to sell prints of her photographs for much cheaper, even though she found it flattering that an artist had decided to use her images.
O’Neill, Lauren. “University's 'Black Twitter' Study Generates Controversy.” CBC News. September 4, 2014. https://www.cbc.ca/newsblogs/yourcommunity/2014/09/universitys-black-twitter-study-generates-controversy.html
A news article explaining Twitter users' reactions to Annennberg Innovation Lab’s announcement that they would be conducting research on the content of Black Twitter. O'Neill explains the Black Twitter community’s outrage at the initially all white male research team, as well as their skepticism over researchers’ ability to accurately and sensitively describe their community, fearing its use in further oppression by dominant groups in power.
O’Neill, Lauren. “University's 'Black Twitter' Study Generates Controversy.” CBC News. September 4, 2014. https://www.cbc.ca/newsblogs/yourcommunity/2014/09/universitys-black-twitter-study-generates-controversy.html
A news article explaining Twitter users' reactions to Annennberg Innovation Lab’s announcement that they would be conducting research on the content of Black Twitter. O'Neill explains the Black Twitter community’s outrage at the initially all white male research team, as well as their skepticism over researchers’ ability to accurately and sensitively describe their community, fearing its use in further oppression by dominant groups in power.
Page, Ruth. “The Linguistics of Self-Branding and Micro-Celebrity in Twitter: The Role of Hashtags.” Discourse & Communication 6, no. 2 (2012): 181–201. doi:10.1177/1750481312437441.
This article explores the use of hashtags as a way to increase perceived status on Twitter and how this plays into the participatory culture of social media. Page analyzes tweets from corporations, celebrities, and regular tweeters using Bourdieu’s framework of a linguistic marketplace, which addresses the use of language to construct a following that results in covert prestige and potential economic gain. As opposed to other media forms such as traditional marketing and media, social media provides the ordinary person the ability to become a micro-celebrity through self-branding and promotion of a chosen identity or persona.
Peterson, Andrea. “Three Charts that Explain How U.S. Journalists Use Social Media,” The Washington Post. May 6, 2014. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2014/05/06/three-charts-that-explain-how-u-s-journalists-use-social-media/.
Peterson discusses how journalists use social media based on the results of a study conducted at Indiana University's school of journalism. Specifically, she explains that some journalists consider social media to be an important part of their work, that nearly all journalists use social media to learn about breaking news, and that most journalists use social media to promote themselves. She says that this data reveals a marked shift since 2002 in determining the way that the internet impacts reporters.
Salathé, Marcel, Clark Freifeld, Sumiko Mekaru, Anna Tomasulo, and John Brownstein. “Influenza A (H7N9) and the Importance of Digital Epidemiology.” The New England Journal of Medicine 369, no. 5 (August 2013): 401–404. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1307752.
In light of influenza strain H7N9, the researchers propose that digital data can be used in epidemiology for early outbreak detection, monitoring disease levels, assessing relevant health behaviors and sentiments toward disease control, and investigating the period of time before an outbreak became apparent. Social media data from the 2013 H7N9 outbreak, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections, older outbreaks of other flu strains, and even SARS are used to support the use of digital data in epidemiology. The researchers argue that the capability of digital disease surveillance to potentially mitigate pandemics far surpasses any challenges its implementation poses.
Schwartz, Raz, and Germaine R. Halegoua. “The Spatial Self: Location-Based Identity Performance on Social Media.” New Media & Society (April 2014): 1–18. doi:10.1177/1461444814531364.
In a 2014 article from New Media & Society, researchers Raz Schwartz and Germaine R. Halegoua propound the idea that social media sites generate the creation of an online persona through the use of geotagging posts to connect to “real world” activities. To show the various ways people curate online personas, researchers focused on the use of geotags on Instagram, Facebook, and Foursquare. The increased use of geolocation tagging allows researchers to investigate topics like “the use and design of public space, urban infrastructure, mobility patterns, local sentiment, and experiences of place.” Halegoua and Schwartz also point out some ethical concerns of researching the use of geolocation tags, such as the fact that researchers are not the intended audience and often do not have user consent.
Shu, Catherine. “Tweets Can Guide Emergency Responders Almost Immediately After An Earthquake.” TechCrunch. May 2, 2014. https://techcrunch.com/2014/05/02/tweets-can-guide-emergency-responders-almost-immediately-after-an-earthquake/.
Stanford researchers Mahalia Miller, Lynne Burks, and Reza Zadeh are working on integrating tweets in ShakeMaps, a tool for tracking earthquakes and aftershocks created by the US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program. The incorporation of tweets aims to provide close to real-time information in the event of an earthquake. Additionally, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) is working on using Twitter as a platform for broadcasting earthquake detection instantly to geographically dispersed populations. The research team hopes that using Twitter data will help inform first responders as well as communities that do not have numerous earthquake recording stations about the size of the earthquake, potential aftershocks, and the level of damage caused.
Shui, Xin, Ying Ding, Jerome Busemeyer, Shanshan Chen, Yuyin Sun, Jie Tang. “Modeling Indirect Influence on Twitter.” International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems 8, 4 (2013): 20-36.
Using the probability of retweeting as derived from two Twitter datasets, one public and one user specific, the authors of this paper study parallel indirect influence with emphasis placed on how the influence changes when the number of spreaders changes. Findings show that the theory of complex contagion can be applied globally in respect to retweeting while quantum cognition theory is best for interpreting parallel indirect influence locally.
Silva, Thiago, Pedro O. S. Vaz de Melo, Jussara Almeida, Juliana Salles, and Antonio A. F. Loureiro. “A Comparison of Foursquare and Instagram to the Study of City Dynamics and Urban Social Behavior.” Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGKDD International Workshop on Urban Computing. 2013. doi:10.1145/2505821.2505836.
Using participatory sensing networks derived from Instagram and Foursquare, datasets from both networks are analyzed to compare the usefulness of Instagram and Foursquare in studying urban planning, social behavior, and city dynamics. The authors hope the data concerning city dynamics will lead to better public services in cities and plan to conduct similar studies with other participatory sensing networks. They also believe that such networks may be useful in identifying cultural differences, although no method is specified.
---. "A Picture of Instagram Is Worth More than a Thousand Words: Workload Characteristics and Application."2013 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (May 2013): 123-132. doi:10.1109/DCOSS.2013.59.
Using Instagram data and users’ behavior, the authors reflect on the advantages and challenges of large scale participatory systems. Temporal photo sharing patterns can function as a guide to cultural behaviors as well as reveal information about the socio-economic class of a location. The authors propose an application that would analyze Instagram data to indicate areas of interest within cities, which implies that such data might be useful in the field of urban planning.
Smith, Aaron. “African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait.” Pew Research Center. January 6, 2014. http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/01/06/african-americans-and-technology-use/.
A summary of the results from a 2014 Pew Research study exploring the technology use of African Americans. Highlights from the results include the conclusion that the technology gap between white Americans and black Americans is not equal across all social media platforms, and that young African Americans use Twitter more than white Americans of the same age. An important statistic found is that 96% of young African Americans (ages 18-29) use some form of social media.
Squires, Lauren. “From TV Personality to Fans and Beyond: Indexical Bleaching and the Diffusion of a Media Innovation.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 24, no. 1 (May 2014): 42–62. doi:10.1111/jola.12036.
Using a phrase ("lady pond") that originated on the Bravo TV network as a case study, Squires analyzes the diffusion of the term from reality television to the common vernacular through the use of Twitter. Twitter is the chosen medium because it is “a significant site of colloquial linguistic exchange” and lends itself “to [the] investigat[ion of] the adoption and circulation of media language.” By examining tweets, Squires shows the introduction of the phrase and its gradual spread beyond associations with Bravo into a slang term.
Summers, Ed. "An Invitation to Study Ferguson." Medium. December 3, 2014. https://medium.com/on-archivy/an-invitation-to-study-ferguson-367b423cff29.
This article contains brief remarks given by Ed Summers for a five minute lightning talk at the Ferguson Town Hall meeting at the University of Maryland on December 3, 2014. In the talk, Summers introduces the Ferguson Twitter archive and its importance in preserving the voices of Ferguson to understanding what happened and how to act in the present. He then encourages the academic community to utilize the Ferguson Twitter archive to study the event and learn something from the over 13,000,000 tweets collected.
Theimer, Kate. “The Future of Archives Is Participatory: Archives as Platform, or A New Mission for Archives.” Archives Next. April 3, 2014. http://archivesnext.com/?p=3700.
In a blog post, Kate Theimer provides a transcript of a telephone talk that she gave at the Offene Archive 2.1 conference in Stuttgart. The influx of digitization has changed the audience of archives to include more of the general public, as opposed to mainly academics, and created an abundance of resources online. Additionally, Theimer proposes that, “archives add value to people’s lives by increasing their understanding and appreciation of the past,” and these principles, achievable through creating welcoming and participatory archives, should act as the new mission for the archival profession. While the article does not mention social media specifically, there is a detailed discussion of the different ways libraries and archives can use the internet to highlight aspects of their collection and engage with researchers and the public.
Tufekci, Zeynep. “Big Questions for Social Media Big Data: Representativeness, Validity and Other Methodological Pitfalls.” ICWSM '14: Proceedings of the 8th International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. 2014. https://arxiv.org/abs/1403.7400
Tufekci discusses the methodological questions yet to be answered within big data research. Despite the fact that large amounts of data from social media and other online content is already in use in research, Tufekci points out that conclusions made from using this data could lead to false inferences. Researchers often overlook key information by self-selecting certain hashtags and not taking into consideration the differences between how humans interact online versus in real life. In conclusion, she makes a call to action for how researchers should treat big data methodologically.
---. “What Happens to #Ferguson Affects Ferguson: Net Neutrality, Algorithmic Filtering and Ferguson,” Medium. August 14, 2014. https://medium.com/message/ferguson-is-also-a-net-neutrality-issue-6d2f3db51eb0.
Tufekci reveals how social media sites’ use of algorithmic filtering controls what “trends” and therefore, what content, specifically from Ferguson, is not shown to users . The implications of algorithmic filtering affect public awareness and perception of current events. Tufekci incorporates tweets and graphs of trending topics as evidence of algorithmic filtering and the slow build of #Ferguson to national attention.
Unruh, Claire, and Allan Becker, “Social Media; a Tool for Retention?” Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 10 (2014). doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-S1-A4.
Unruh and Becker contemplate the use of social media sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram, to increase retention rates of participants in longitudinal studies. These sites could facilitate connections between researchers and families, allowing for information sharing in both directions, which the authors feel outweighs any limitations of using social media for maintaining participants. While no study results exist at this time, “significant results are anticipated.”
Van Noorden, Richard. “Online Collaboration: Scientists and the Social Network.” Nature 512 (August 14, 2014): 126–129. http://www.nature.com/news/online-collaboration-scientists-and-the-social-network-1.15711.
A survey of scientists from a wide variety of backgrounds, conducted by Nature, investigates why academic social networks such as ResearchGate are flourishing now instead of floundering like their predecessors. Responses indicate that scientists are less interested in the social components of the sites and more interested in the professional advantages, such as increasing awareness of their work.
Vivienne, Sonja, and Jean Burgess. “The Remediation of the Personal Photograph and the Politics of Self-Representation in Digital Storytelling.” Journal of Material Culture 18, no. 3 (September 2013): 279–98.
Vivienne and Burgess trace the history of personal photography, from Kodak handheld cameras to digital based photography, and the impact of Web 2.0 technology on how people share photography. The ease of sharing photographs enabled a shift towards “using photography as an instrument for peer bonding and interaction.” The move toward web-based photo sharing influenced the creation of digital stories, defined as “three to five minute autobiographical multimedia narratives in video form.” Utilizing case studies, Burgess and Vivienne depict how photography is used and manipulated in digital storytelling while expressing one’s life narrative.
Wallsbeck, Frida, and Ulrika Johansson. “Instagram Marketing: When Brands Want to Reach Generation Y with Their Communication.” Halmstad University. 2014. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:725701/FULLTEXT01.pdf.
Students in the International Marketing Programme at Halmstad University’s School of Business and Engineering review the impact of Instagram marketing on Generation Y through a deductive study which used interviews and online surveys. Questions addressed include what types of communication Generation Y likes, why they like what they do, and what that means. Johansson and Wallsbeck couple their data with existing theories to create a theoretical model to guide organizations in their use of Instagram marketing to better reach Generation Y.
Wardell III, Clarence, and Yee San Su. “2011 Social Media & Emergency Management Camp: Transforming the Response Enterprise.” CNA. September 2011. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/SMEM_Report.pdf.
Content from the 2011 Social Media Emergency Management Camp aims to highlight the challenges of incorporating social media and technology into traditional response structures, provide examples of best practices for using social media in the field, and evaluate the Camp as a future training center for such initiatives. These discussions fall under the umbrella of enterprise transformation theory, understood as “the process of moving an entity from one state of existence to another, as defined by changes in the organization’s inputs and processes.” The Camp’s attendees feel that a failure to implement social media into emergency management practices would mean missing out on a new way to help citizens, which could, in turn, lead to those citizens viewing emergency management professionals as less relevant.
Weilenmann, Alexandra, Thomas Hillman, and Beata Jungselius. “Instagram at the Museum: Communicating the Museum Experience through Social Photo Sharing." Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (April 2013): 1843-1852. doi:10.1145/2470654.2466243.
By analyzing 222 Instagram posts created in a museum of natural history and interviewing 14 of the visitors who contributed those posts, Hillman, Jungselius, and Weilenmann explore the implications of museum visitors using Instagram and other social media to form personal narratives of their visits. Additional concerns are raised about museums’ attempts to create open dialogues with visitors and connecting that dialogue to the museums’ physical spaces using social media.  
Willis, Derek. “With Twitter’s Help, Watch Congress Edit Wikipedia.” New York Times. July 14, 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/15/upshot/twitter-wikipedia-and-a-closer-eye-on-congress.html.
In 2014, a Twitter account, @congressedits, was created to track and make public edits to Wikipedia that originated on a congressional computer in an effort to increase government transparency. The account @congressedits attempts to provide information to the general public about what is occurring in Congress. Willis, a reporter for the New York Times, connects this new account to a growing political practice that aims to monitor opponents' appearances and digital presence for any segment that will be useful during campaigns.
Young, Sean D., Caitlin Rivers, and Bryan Lewis. “Methods of Using Real-Time Social Media Technologies for Detection and Remote Monitoring of HIV Outcomes.” Preventive Medicine 63 (June 2014): 112–15. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.01.024.
Young, Rivers, and Lewis explore the feasibility of using Twitter to detect and monitor HIV activity by taking a real-time random sampling of 1% of Twitter’s feed collected from Twitter’s API, filtering the 500,000,000 collected tweets using U.S.-specific geolocation, and feeding the data through an algorithm to identify and pull tweets containing HIV-risk-related keywords. After being been mapped using Geographic Information System and compared with prevalence data from 2009, the final collection of 9,880 HIV-related tweets confirms that it is practical and useful to take advantage of social media and epidemiology to crawl big data for geolocated communication concerning HIV risk factors, examine the subject matter and pervasiveness of said communication, monitor the transmission of HIV, and, above all, prevent further transmission.

Literature on Legal and Ethical Issues

Benedict, Karen, ed. Ethics and the Archival Profession: Introduction and Case Studies. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2003.
Using a variety of case studies, Karen Benedict compiles various ethical dilemmas that archivists face. Each case study outlines a specific dilemma, what the SAA Code of Ethics states, and how archivists can solve these common problems. 
Behrnd-Klodt, Menzi L., and Christopher J. Prom, eds. Rights in the Digital Era. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 2015.
This extensive book examines legal and ethical implications in preserving and accessing archival content, including privacy implications with the increase in digitization and born-digital records. Divided into sections, Rights in the Digital Era focses on understanding copyright, managing permissions, and access and privacy in manuscript and organizational records. The work helps contextualize the balance of donors' and researchers' rights with established archival practices. The authors include many important examples of archival case studies and bibliographies for each section to further understand the changing rights of donors and researchers in the digital age.
Caswell, Michelle. “Rethinking Inalienability.” American Archivist 76, no. 1 (2013): 113-34.
Using Cambodia as the backdrop, Caswell examines the conditions under which nongovernmental archives should possess the “records documenting state-sponsored human rights abuses” instead of traditional government archives, arguing that nongovernmental archives are more trustworthy when it comes to archiving human rights abuses. The article examines the custody of Khmer Rouge records before expanding to include the records of any society facing transitional justice, concluding with a proposal of a new model for archives based on stewardship rather than custody.
Crouch, Ian. “The Great American Twitter Novel." The New Yorker. July 23, 2014. https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/great-american-twitter-novel
An article describing a novel that David Mitchell published on Twitter to promote his book The Bone Clocks. The article discusses both the traditional and non-traditional uses of Twitter, and the potential for similar fictional works to be created on a social media platform.
Digital Media Law Project. “Vanginderen vs. Cornell University,” Berkman Center for Internet and Society. August 29, 2008. http://www.dmlp.org/threats/vanginderen-v-cornell.
This is a legal summary of the claims brought against Cornell University by Kevin Vanginderen. Vanginderen claimed that the University's historical newspaper digitization program made public information from a 1983 issue of a newspaper that was false, and constituted the public disclosure of private facts. The newspaper in question named him as a suspect in a burglary. The summary of this case records actions made by the plaintiff, the defendant, and the court, and also includes reasons for the case's eventual dismissal.
D’Orazio, Dante. “Twitter is deleting stolen jokes on copyright grounds.” The Verge, July 25, 2015, accessed July 30, 2015. https://www.theverge.com/2015/7/25/9039127/twitter-deletes-stolen-joke-dmca-takedown
In this news story, D'Orazio recounts how a freelance writer made a takedown request to Twitter for a copyrighted joke in order to demonstrate how Twitter now honors takedown requests when users copy other's jokes without attribution. The article describes Twitter's takedown policy, and explains copyright for original content.
Estrin, James. “Haitian Photographer Wins Major U.S. Copyright Victory.” New York Times. November 23, 2013. https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/23/haitian-photographer-wins-major-u-s-copyright-victory/?smid=pl-share.
Haitian photojournalist Daniel Morel, following the disastrous earthquake that struck his country in 2010, posted his photos of the aftermath on his Twitter account. Agence France-Presse (AFP) and Getty Images used and falsely credited the images to Lisandro Suero and "David More." A “mandatory kill” notice was issued, instructing Getty to delete Morel’s images of the earthquake and have their customers do so as well; however, weeks later, Morel’s representatives at Corbis Corp found that the erroneously credited images were still available. Morel brought suit against AFP, and the court originally found that Getty and AFP willfully infringed Morel’s rights, awarding Morel $1.2 million. When Getty and AFP fought this decision, the jury ultimately upheld the original verdict. As Estrin notes, this case gives Twitter users a limited amount of control over the content that they post.
Freeman, Nancy, and Robert B. Riter. “An Online Exhibit: A Tale of Triumph and Tribulation.” Society of American Archivists: Case Studies in Archival Ethics (May 2014). https://www2.archivists.org/sites/all/files/AnOnlineExhibit-SAA-CaseStudy_0.pdf
Nancy Freeman and Robert B. Riter examine issues of judgment in this case study of the Women and Leadership Archives at Loyola University Chicago. An online exhibit entitled "Activist Mundelein" was launched in 2013 as part of a grant project and aimed to use oral histories, documents, and pictures to explore activism at Mundelein College from WWII to 1970. The exhibit, however, was met with some negative response in regard to its content. Criticisms of the exhibit involved the exclusion certain voices and opinions. For example, the exhibit contained representation of the Young Republicans club, but not the Young Democrats club. Creators of the exhibit assumed a certain level of knowledge held by the targeted audience that did not require additional contextualization.
Gasaway, Laura N., Richard S. Rudick, Mary Rasenberger, and Christopher Weston. "The Section 108 Study Group Report." Library of Congress. March 2008. http://www.section108.gov/docs/Sec108StudyGroupReport.pdf.
The report includes the Section 108 Study Group’s 2008 findings and recommendations on copyright exceptions for libraries and archives that would reflect the challenges and opportunities of digital technologies, which the group hopes will help these entities continue to provide information to and promote creativity among the public. As part of a discussion about the preservation of publicly available online content, the group advocates that “a new exception should be added to section 108 to permit libraries and archives to capture and reproduce publicly available online content for preservation purposes, and to make those copies accessible to users for purposes of private study, scholarship, or research.” However, individuals should maintain the right to opt out of their content being captured and made available to researchers.
Goel, Vindu. “As Data Overflows Online, Researchers Grapple with Ethics." New York Times. August 12, 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/technology/the-boon-of-online-data-puts-social-science-in-a-quandary.html.
In light of Jeffrey T. Hancock’s Facebook study that involved adjusting over 500,000 newsfeeds to observe how the users’ emotions were affected, Goel reflects on the ethics behind experimenting on Internet users without explicit consent. While personal data gleaned from social media and other Internet sites provides researchers with larger pools of information and test subjects, treatment and privacy of users becomes questionable in the aforementioned scenarios.
---. "Facebook Promises Deeper Review of Research, But Is Short on the Particulars.” New York Times. October 2, 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/03/technology/facebook-promises-a-deeper-review-of-its-user-research.html.
Following the public outrage over the Jeffrey T. Hancock study, Facebook claims that it will be increasing scrutiny on, and implementing guidelines for, research involving its users to prevent further unfair treatment and breaches of privacy. Goel, however, reminds his readers that Facebook is vague about how they will go about increasing scrutiny and what the guidelines will entail.
Greenstein, Daniel, Bill Ivey, Anne R. Kenney, Brian Lavoie, and Abby Smith. "Access in the Future Tense."  Council on Information Resources, Washington, D.C. April 2004. https://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/reports/pub126/pub126.pdf.
Access in the Future Tense, the formalized conference report of the Council on Library and Information Resources Spring 2003 conference, examines the challenges that will arise from the changing information environment and proposes suggestions for handling those challenges. The report, with contributions by scholars, library directors, administrators, publishers, collectors, legal representatives, and members of the preservation community, includes a piece by Bill Ivey entitled “Issues in Intangible Cultural Heritage,” which urges institutions to “[push] back against the growing footprint of restrictive intellectual property law and help stake out a lasting public right of access.” Abby Smith’s closing article, “In Support of Long-Term Access,” stresses that, legally, access and preservation are no longer separate concepts, meaning libraries and archives must make the public’s right to access a primary mission.
Grotke, Abbie. “The NDSA Content Working Group’s National Agenda Digital Content Area Discussions: Web and Social Media.” NDSA. 2014. https://blogs.loc.gov/thesignal/files/2014/01/NDSACWG_WebSocialMedia_Overview_Grotke.pdf.
The National Digital Stewardship Alliance’s presentation on web and social media preservation explores some of the ethical and legal challenges inherent in this area of digital preservation. Ethical concerns include responsibility, privacy, and whether digital preservationists should adopt the same personal-security practices utilized by banks and government agencies. Among the discussed legal challenges are how laws vary depending on region, permission-based approaches to archiving, access embargos, and robots.txt, which are “file[s] that websites use to provide instructions to [web] crawlers.”
Harris, Verne. “The Archival Sliver: Power, Memory, and Archives in South Africa.” Archival Science 2, 2002, 63- 86. http://www.nyu.edu/pages/classes/bkg/methods/harris.pdf
Harris describes the systematic collection and creation of records during apartheid in South Africa by the groups in power. The result of which was significant gaps in the historical record of documentation for powerless groups. Harris explains efforts by archivists to address this problem post apartheid, and the active role archivists play in documenting history when they acknowledge the constructedness of memory.
Horn, David. “The Development of Ethics in Archival Practice.” Society of American Archivists 52, no.1 (Winter 1989): 64–71.
Horn briefly describes the conditions under which the Society of American Archivists first developed a formal code of ethics for archivists. In its 1989 form, the code of ethics instructs archivists to meticulously analyze potential items for preservation; ensure access to collections; protect the rights and privacy of their parent institutions along with the rights and privacy of individuals; echo current archival sentiments while remaining true to personal, professional, and legal responsibilities; encourage research but acquire consent before sharing a researcher’s work with others; be mindful and responsible if using collections for personal research; follow institutional requirements for formally filing complaints; advance their knowledge of the field and confer with colleagues about said knowledge; and consult the code of ethics to resolve disputes concerning “conflicts of interest.”
Jeong, Sarah. “People v. Harris: Twitter Must Produce Occupy Wall Street Protestor’s Data.” Harvard Journal of Law & Technology: Jolt Digest. July 11, 2012. http://jolt.law.harvard.edu/digest/privacy/people-v-harris.
After being arrested for disorderly conduct during Occupy Wall Street, Malcolm Harris attempted to repeal a subpoena issued by the district attorney’s office to Twitter for access to the defendant’s public tweets. Twitter stepped in on behalf of the defendant, claiming that its users and their public tweets are protected by the Fourth Amendment. However, referring to the public nature of tweets, the court ruled that Twitter users have no reasonable expectation of privacy and, accordingly, the Fourth Amendment does not apply.
Kirschenbaum, Matthew, Richard Ovenden, and Gabriela Redwine. "Digital Forensics and Born-Digital Content in Cultural Heritage Collections." Council of Library and Information Resources, Washington D.C.,  December 2010. https://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub149/.
The Council on Library and Information Resources report "Digital Forensics and Born-Digital Content in Cultural Heritage Collections" introduces digital forensics to cultural heritage professionals, examines the shared points of interest of cultural heritage curators and legal evidence collectors, and encourages increased collaboration between those two fields. In a section of the report dedicated to ethics, the authors address questions of online security and privacy, and conduct and confidentiality. They also provide suggestions for educating staff about the previously mentioned concerns, and working with the creators of the data, including identifying what information is ethical to extract from born-digital content and the importance of transparent policies referring to that content.
“Legal Issues.” International Internet Preservation Consortium: Web Archiving. 2003. http://netpreserve.org/web-archiving/legal-issues/.
The International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC), created in 2003 to improve best practices for web archiving and increase international collaboration, lays out legal issues common in web archiving. Issues include: access to content, conflicting electronic consent laws, lack of response from site owners when seeking their permission to use content, risk assessments, and fair use analysis.
Lomborg, Stine. “Personal Internet Archives and Ethics.” Research Ethics 9, no. 20 (2013). doi:10.1177/1747016112459450.
Using ethical guidelines from the Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR) ethics committee in 2012, the author discusses ethical implications and dilemmas he faced while conducting prior research using Twitter, as well as issues he perceived after engaging in conversation with research participants. Briefly mentioned is the degree to which online posts equate to human subjects and the ethics measures that correspond to personhood and privacy.
MacNeil, Heather. Without Consent: The Ethics of Disclosing Personal Information in Public Archives. Chicago: Society for American Archivists, 1992.
MacNeil outlines the ethical issues associated with access to personal information. Her book focuses on the ethics of individual privacy, researcher's right to access information and archivist's professional responsibility to balance these two competing principles. Changing trends in research areas necessitated this discussion on access as records containing personal information are increasingly used in socio-historical scholarship. The book is broken into two thematic sections: current debates about privacy and access, followed by specific dilemmas in archival access.
McNealy, Jasmine. “The Privacy Implications of Digital Preservation: Social Media Archives and the Social Networks Theory of Privacy.” Elon Law Review 3, no. 2 (February 2012): 133–60. http://www.elon.edu/docs/e-web/law/law_review/Issues/Elon_Law_Review_V3_No2_McNealy.pdf.
In an argument framed around the Library of Congress’ (LOC) acquisition of the Twitter archive, Jasmine McNealy analyzes the degree to which social media users can claim a right to privacy for content posted on social media sites. The article synthesizes various social networking and information dissemination theories in regard to their impact on privacy laws in the real and digital worlds and illustrates the complex nature of internet privacy expectations. McNealy offers one possible solution to these privacy concerns: have the LOC request user permission to include their tweets in the donated Twitter archive.
Miao, Tiffany. “Access Denied: How Social Media Accounts Fall Outside the Scope of Intellectual Property Law and into the Realm of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act.” Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal. 2013.
Miao analyzes social media’s place within traditional intellectual property law, ownership over social media information, and the court’s struggle to place social media within intellectual property ownership. Control over social media content is based on three principles: access information, posted content, and subscriber lists, which the author believes are not covered under traditional intellectual property laws. Alternatively, the author proposes fitting social media litigation under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) because, “the CFAA protects the SMA [Social Media Account] for what it is...[and] correctly captures the role of SMAs as another tool for business, not an independent innovation by a company.”
Moyer, Melinda Wenner. “Twitter Opens Its Cage.” Scientific American 310, no. 6 (June 2014): 16.
Melinda Wenner Moyer posits ethical and legal dilemmas that researchers will face now that Twitter has donated its archive of tweets to the Library of Congress. Questions include: “Will Twitter retain any legal rights to scientific findings? Is the use of Twitter as a research tool ethical, given that its users do not intend to contribute to research?”
Pallante, Maria A. “The Register’s Call for Updates to U.S. Copyright Law.” United States House of Representatives: 113th Congress, 1st Session. March 20, 2013. https://www.copyright.gov/regstat/2013/regstat03202013.html
This is a statement made to the United States House of Representatives by the Register of Copyrights, Maria A. Pallante. She calls for a dramatic change to copyright law, claiming that the Digital Millenium Copyright Act did not do enough for digital content, and that the last major revision to U.S. copyright law occurred more than thirty years ago.
Payne, Andrew C. “Twitigation: Old Rules in a New World.” Washburn Law Journal 49 (2010): 841-870. https://contentdm.washburnlaw.edu/digital/collection/wlj/id/5753.
Andrew Payne argues against the notion of social networking as being analogous to e-discovery and thus subject to e-discovery web 1.0 laws. He postulates that there are four ways social networking is different than traditional e-discovery: social networking information is permanently stored on a third-party server and not on a party’s own computer; e-discovery laws were created with businesses in mind, not personal information; social networking information carries additional privacy implications, information is not static; and users have control over what to share and who sees it. New laws and methods need to be created for handling social networking, especially in regard to user privacy.
Prosser, William L. “Privacy,” California Law Review 48, no. 3 (1960).
This seminal legal article is the basis on which much of case law regarding privacy is built. He builds off Warren and Brandeis's work defining privacy in 1890 by naming and describing four ways in which an individual may have their privacy infringed upon.
Pyatt, Timothy D. “The Harding Affair Letters: How One Archivist Took Every Measure Possible To Ensure Their Preservation” Society of American Archivists: Case Studies in Archival Ethics (April 2015). https://www2.archivists.org/sites/all/files/HardingAffairLetters_CEPC-CaseStudy5.pdf
This article summarizes the events and ethical concerns surrounding the acquisition of the Harding affair letters in the 1960s. In 1963, Ken Duckett at the Ohio Historical Society came into possession of President Warren G. Harding’s love letters to his mistress. However, Harding’s remaining family desired their destruction because of their sensitive nature. Other archivists at the OHS, who wanted Harding’s papers donated to them from his family, thought it best to fulfill their wishes. Duckett recognized the love letters' historical and research value, went to great lengths to protect them including, and ultimately suffered a lawsuit. The article discusses the difficulty in balancing different stakeholder wishes, but ultimately recognizes the archival values behind Duckett’s actions.
Raysman, Richard. “Facebook User Voluntarily Shared Image; Cannot Claim Reasonable Expectation of Privacy under Fourth Amendment.” Lexology. October 24, 2013. https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=731d8045-c6ac-4d96-a145-4a37abb19dcf.
An Internet-safety presentation in the plaintiff’s school district included a picture of the minor in her bikini, which a school official had found when looking at other students’ Facebook pages. In the case Chaney v. Fayette County Public School District et al., the plaintiff sued the school district, claiming her Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights to privacy had been violated, but the jury held that because a photograph had been shared with “friends of friends” (the most inclusive privacy setting available to her) the minor’s case lacked the reasonable expectation of privacy associated with a Fourth Amendment claim. In the end, the case was dismissed per the school district’s request.
Rivers, Caitlin, and Bryan Lewis. “Ethical Research Standards in a World of Big Data.” F1000Research. August 21, 2014. https://f1000research.com/articles/3-38/v2.
Lewis and Caitlin propose standards for the ethical use of Twitter data in research using the acronym TACTICs, short for Transparent, Anonymity, Control, Tracking, IRB, Context. Researchers following TACTICs would make transparent studies that are publicly available, respect tweets’ contexts, secure data which might be capable of revealing tweeters’ identities, refrain from using Twitter data to garner more information about tweeters from elsewhere, be obligated to receive Institutional Review Board clearance for studies necessitating the collection of data from individuals, and honor users’ privacy settings. Their article and proposed standards are currently awaiting peer review.
Ryan, Ellen. “Identifying Culturally Sensitive American Indian Material in a Non-Tribal Institution,” Society for American Archivists: Case Studies in Archival Ethics, (September 2014). http://www2.archivists.org/sites/all/files/AmericanIndianMaterial_CEPC-CaseStudy3.pdf.
This study, written by Ellen Ryan, Head of Special Collections and Archives at Idaho State University, focuses on the archival material of indigenous people held in non-tribal repositories. In 2013, while working on processing and rehousing photographs in an existing collection, a graduate student discovered sensitive photographs of a sacred ceremony and of a tribal member laid out in full regalia for viewing and subsequent burial at local Fort Hall Reservation. This case study emphasized archival responsibility in the handling of culturally sensitive material, negotiating individual's expectations for privacy of their cultural traditions, and how archives work with Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) mandates.
Scheller, Samantha. “Instagram: Uncharted Territory for Courts and Journalists.” Digital Media Law Project. August 16, 2013. http://www.dmlp.org/blog/2013/instagram-uncharted-territory-courts-and-journalists.
Scheller, in a blog post written for the site Digital Media Law Project, examines three legal issues revolving around Instagram. The issues surround a defamation lawsuit centered on rapper The Game, proposed changes to Instagram’s terms of use which would have provided Instagram with access to photos for the purpose of advertising, and journalists’ use of Instagram as a news source and platform. The author cautions journalists about posting original content to the site because Instagram has the ability to sublicense and use photos posted to the site, as long as identifying data is removed.
Shinen, Brock. “Twitterlogical: The Misunderstandings of Ownership.” Twitter and Copyright. 2009. http://canyoucopyrightatweet.com/.
Attorney Brock Shinen explains why tweets are not inherently copyrighted or copyrightable despite many people’s notion that they are. He asserts that people should not ask “are tweets copyrightable” but ask instead “is this tweet copyrightable?" emphasizing that the ability to copyright a tweet must be determined on a case-by-case basis.
Society of American Archivists. “SAA Core Values Statement" and "Code of Ethics." Society of American Archivists Council. May 2011. https://www2.archivists.org/statements/saa-core-values-statement-and-code-of-ethics.
The Society of American Archivists (SAA) presents the Core Values of Archivists, the formalized beliefs of archivists, and the Code of Ethics for Archivists, the foundation on which archivists are expected to build their practices. The Core Values consist of access, use, accountability, advocacy, diversity, history, memory, preservation, professionalism, custody, selection, service, and social responsibility. The Code of Ethics encompasses professional relationships, judgment, authenticity, security, protection, access, use, privacy, and trust.
Stratford, Michael. “Judge Dismisses Libel Suit Against Cornell.” The Cornell Daily Sun. January 29, 2009. https://cornellsun.com/2009/01/23/judge-dismisses-libel-suit-against-cornell/
An article published in The Cornell Daily Sun that describes the case brought against Cornell by Kevin Vanginderen regarding privacy and libel. It explains the case's eventual dismissal by the courts, as well as the Cornell University Library's reaction to the dismissal. The case was largely dismissed because the judge found no evidence of Vanginderen's claims, specifically that Cornell smeared his name and that information the university was digitizing was false.
Summers, Ed. "On Forgetting and Hydration." Medium. November 18, 2014. https://medium.com/on-archivy/on-forgetting-e01a2b95272.
Twitter's Terms of Service limits the ways in which downloaded datasets from Twitter can be shared. According to these terms, the Ferguson Twitter archive data compiled by Ed Summers at the University of Maryland can only be shared with others at his institution and not directly with third parties. What can be shared are the Tweet IDs to the over 13,000,000 tweets collected. Summers outlines the process in which interested third parties can hydrate the Tweet IDs through either the Twitter API or his program, twarc. However, Twitter has created an ethical system in which users have the opportunity to remove their content. Thus, researchers who rely on the Twitter API to hydrate content cannot retrieve deleted tweets.
---. "Tweets and Deletes: Silences in the Social Media Archive." Medium. April 14, 2015. https://medium.com/on-archivy/tweets-and-deletes-727ed74f84ed.
Summers reexamines the power of archivists to mold the archival record by choosing what to collect and what not to collect. In regards to social media archives, the creator of the tweet has the power to delete content, not necessarily the archivist. Summers uses the example of Twitter data collected on the attack of the offices of Charlie Hebdo that shows 8.1%, or 1.1 million tweets were deleted less than two months after they were collected. These deleted tweets represent silences in social media archives, and more may be deleted in the future, potentially creating an ever-changing archival record.
Warren, Samuel D. and Louis D. Brandeis. “The Right to Privacy.” Harvard Law Review 4, no, 5 (1890). http://faculty.uml.edu/sgallagher/Brandeisprivacy.htm
In 1890 Warren and Brandeis wrote "The Right to Privacy" and defined privacy as the "right to be let alone." Countless modern reevaluations of privacy have based their interpretation on this seminal essay.
Zimmer, Michael, and Nicholas John Proferes. “A Topology of Twitter Research: Disciplines, Methods, and Ethics.” Aslib Journal of Information Management 66, no. 3 (2014): 250–61. doi:10.1108/AJIM-09-2013-0083.
Michael Zimmer and Nicholas John Proferes review current research that uses Twitter as a main analytical tool and pose ethical questions about the use of tweets in academic research. The authors are particularly attentive to the ethics of research using retweets stating, “the practice of retweeting represents a risk for the leakage of tweets that had been intended for a restricted audience, thereby generating a considerable privacy threat when archived by researchers.” Additionally, the authors raise several methodological questions: are users who post public, unprotected tweets implicitly consenting to having their messages harvested for researchers? Do users understand this implied consent? Lastly, is there an option for users to opt-out of harvesting?
Wilsted, Thomas. “Observations on the Ethics of Collecting Archives and Manuscripts.” Provenance, Journal of the Society of Georgia Archivists 11, no. 1 (1993). https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/provenance/vol11/iss1/4/.
Wilsted reviews the 1992 revisions to SAA’s Code of Ethics for Archivists before describing various ethical problems that can arise in the archival profession. He provides an overview of ethical concerns with collection policies, donor relations, collection backlogs, split collections, and the deaccession process.

Facebook and Twitter Personal Archives

Facebook

Ashenfelder, Mike. “Reality Check: What Most People Do with Their Personal Digital Archives.” The Signal: Digital Preservation. May 15, 2013. https://blogs.loc.gov/thesignal/2013/05/reality-check-what-most-people-actually-do-with-their-personal-digital-archives/.
Ashenfelder wrote a blog post for the Library of Congress describing the efforts of University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana PhD student Noah Lenstra to run a series of workshops that helped people digitize their family “personal and family memorabilia.” During the workshops, Lenstra found that librarians wanted knowledge about personal digital archiving and that community members were using social media sites to create their own personal digital archives, which allowed them to easily share content with others. Workshop participants wanted to share their material with others and were looking for community and connection, which can be found online. Lenstra advocated for public programming at libraries aimed at teaching patrons about resources besides Facebook to create personal digital archives.
“Facebook and Privacy.” Facebook. April 11, 2012. https://www.facebook.com/125713384123802/posts/416616365033501.
A Facebook comment from the Facebook and Privacy page announcing that users can download the new, expanded personal archive and where users can find information on how to access their archive.
Lee, Melissa. “Online Personal Archives (Facebook)......and the Creepiness of the Timeline.” Melissa Lee (blog). January 16, 2014. http://blogs.ubc.ca/mzylee/2014/01/16/online-personal-archives-facebook-and-the-creepiness-of-the-timeline/.
In this blog post, Lee discusses the timeline feature on Facebook and argues that the timeline acts as an online archive that maintains and displays user's past posts. This feature allows users to document and store everything that happens to them, on and off line. The author admits some trepidation at this new feature, arguing that it could highlight aspects of individual's online past that they would rather stay hidden.
Naureckas, Jim. “Privacy and Social Media: It’s Complicated,” FAIR: Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting. October 3, 2014. https://fair.org/home/privacy-and-social-media-its-complicated/.
Using the launch of ad-free social media site Ello, Naureckas' article focuses on people's conception of privacy online and the different types of privacy that exist. The launch of Ello, and its promise to be an ad-free site, is an example of people's growing concern about their data being being sold and the increased debate over online privacy. Facebook requires the use of names or pseudonyms that are used in the real world as opposed to monikers only for the virtual world. Instead, Ello allows for the use of profile handles that do not have to be a “social identity.”
Solon, Olivia. “How Much Data Did Facebook Have on One Man? 1,200 Pages of Data in 57 Categories.” Wired. December 28, 2012. http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2012/12/ start/privacy-versus-facebook.
Solon’s article highlights the efforts of Austrian law student Max Schrems to take Facebook to court for breaking EU data protection laws. The article focuses on Schrem’s claims and some of the differences between US and European data protection laws. Schrems' case helped begin the discussion regarding the accumulation of users' social media data and the control that Facebook has over that data.

Twitter

“How often can a new Twitter archive be requested?” StackExchange. October 23, 2013. https://webapps.stackexchange.com/questions/51071/how-often-can-a-new-twitter-archive-be-requested.
A comment board discussion on the wait time between Twitter archive downloads. There were only two answers but both agreed that users need to wait between one and three weeks before they can redownload their Twitter data.
Vandor, Mollie. “Your Twitter Archive.” The Official Twitter Blog.  December 19, 2012. https://blog.twitter.com/official/en_us/a/2012/your-twitter-archive.html.
Twitter’s announcement on the company’s blog about the new tool that allows users to download their past tweets and data. The post outlined the types of data included in a user's Twitter archive and how to use the new tool.

Environmental Scan

Examples of Content Being Collected

Luckerson, Victor. “What the Library of Congress Plans to Do With All Your Tweets.” Time. February 25, 2013. http://business.time.com/2013/02/25/what-the-library-of-congress-plans-to-do-with-all-your-tweets.
Luckerson discusses the Library of Congress (LOC) Twitter Archive and the problems the LOC has with archiving and making accessible such large quantities of born-digital data. The research value of this collection and how researchers across disciplines are incorporating tweets is also briefly discussed.
Peterson, Christie, Jessica Meyerson, Maryrose Hightower-Coyle, and Jenn Coast. RMRT/WebArch Hangout, SAA Records Management Roundtable video, 52:13. July 9, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDN1vvvW0q0.
As part of the SAA Records Management Roundtable discussions, Christie Peterson, Jessica Meyerson, Maryrose Hightower-Coyle, and Jenn Coast talked about their efforts to implement web archiving policies. Meyerson, Hightower-Coyle and Coast also mentioned the difficulties in trying to create a web archiving policy that can be followed throughout university departments.
“Update on the Twitter Archive At the Library of Congress.” Library of Congress. January 2013. https://www.loc.gov/news/2013/files/twitter_report_2013jan.pdf.
This white paper looks at the status of the Twitter archive at the Library of Congress (LOC) since it was announced in April 2010. The paper outlines why the archive is important to the LOC and researchers and the problems the LOC has had with archiving the approximate 170 billion tweets that they had collected so far. For example, due to the number of tweets, just searching tweets from 2006-2010 would take twenty-four hours.
Williams, Elliot. “Web Archiving for University Records.” Presentation at the Society of Southwest Archivists Annual Meeting, Austin, TX. May 22-25, 2013. https://societyofsouthwestarchivists.wildapricot.org/Resources/Documents/SSA2013Presentations/Williams_SSA_2.pdf.
Williams outlines the need for university archives to begin collecting web-based records as well as the potential challenges. He lists three main challenges: technological limits, privacy and intellectual property rights, and engagement with donors.

Including Social Media in New Collections

Baumann, Ryan. "Archiving Video from #Ferguson." Medium. April 9, 2015. https://medium.com/on-archivy/archiving-video-from-ferguson-504e95859756.
In response to Bergis Jules' article, "Documenting the Now: #Ferguson in the Archives," Ryan Baumann uses the youtube-dl program to download embedded videos from Ed Summers' Ferguson Twitter archive. Baumann prioritizes the 4,038 Vine videos first. Now that the video archive is collected, questions arise regarding what the data should be used for, and how should it be mediated, curated, and presented. Out of the total number of Vine videos, 556 resulted in a 404 not found error. This poses an ethical question of whether those missing videos should be recovered, or whether in deleting the videos, the owners are exercising their right to be forgotten.
Del Signore, John. “Museums Archiving Occupy Wall Street: Historical Preservation or ‘Taxpayer-Funded Hoarding?’” Gothamist. December 26, 2011. http://gothamist.com/2011/12/26/occupy_wall_street_the_museum_exhib.php.
John Del Signore outlines the efforts by New York City institutions, among others, to document and preserve physical and digital artifacts relating to the Occupy Wall Street movement. There has been some backlash from groups and politicians who do not believe institutions funded by taxpayers, like the Smithsonian, should be archiving objects from the Occupy movement.
Gueguen, Gretchen. “Capturing the Zeitgeist.” University of Virginia. October 10, 2012. https://www.slideshare.net/guegueng/capturing-the-zeitgeist.
In June 2012, the University of Virginia President Teresa Sullivan was forced to resign which incited public protests by students, staff, and community members. In this presentation, Gueguen outlines the protest movement and the efforts of the University Archives to collect and preserve physical and digital records relating to this event.
Jules, Bergis. "Documenting the Now: #Ferguson in the Archives." Medium. April 8, 2015. https://medium.com/on-archivy/documenting-the-now-ferguson-in-the-archives-adcdbe1d5788
Social media, like Twitter, presents a new opportunity for archivists to create collections of momentous events by capturing public sentiment at the time the event occurs. Jules explores this concept with the events in Ferguson, Missouri, as #Ferguson and #MichaelBrown became the most popular hashtags of 2014. The author mentions individual efforts to collect tweets with the Ferguson hashtag, like Ed Summers' twarc application, a command line tool and Python library for archiving Twitter JSON data, that collected over 13,000,000 related tweets in about two weeks using the Twitter API. Capturing and preserving digital content around the Ferguson events, including images, videos, and audio, will enable deeper analysis of public reactions for future researchers
---. "Hashtags of Ferguson." Medium. April 24, 2015. https://medium.com/on-archivy/hashtags-of-ferguson-8f52a0aced87.
Jules expands on his earlier ideas about documenting the killing of Michael Brown and the subsequent protests in Ferguson via Twitter, focusing on those hashtags used most during and after the event. Jules partners with Ed Summers to analyze Summers' Ferguson Twitter archive dataset of over 13,000,000 tweets.  Summers and Jules wade through the data to eliminate tweets unrelated to the protests. As a result, they found there to be 112,149 unique hashtags related to the events, including #ferguson, #michaelbrown, and #justiceformikebrown. Knowing the most popular hashtags used around the time the events occurred may help to focus on those individuals closest to the event who, therefore, produce the most authentic Twitter content. 
King, Leslie. “Emory Digital Scholars Archive Occupy Wall Street Tweets.” Emory News Center. September 21, 2012. http://news.emory.edu/stories/2012/09/er_occupy_wall_street_tweets_archive/campus.html.
Emory scholars and staff developed a digital archive of Occupy Wall Street tweets, which were then organized into word clouds and heat maps, illustrating the spread of the movement and its ideas. Their program does not allow for the tweets to be read individually but instead forms large data sets using the open source application Twap.
“Project Explanation and Purpose.” Documenting Ferguson. September 2014. http://digital.wustl.edu/ferguson/DFP-Plan.pdf.
The Documenting Ferguson online archive is sponsored by Washington University Libraries and other local and national institutions. The project aims to preserve content related to the August 2014 shooting of Michael Brown by a Ferguson police officer, including “citizen protests and rallies, community reactions, meetings, and memorials, and capturing cultural events via social media.”
Smith, Erica. “Wash U, History Museum Seeking Ferguson Artifacts.” St. Louis Public Radio. January 30, 2015. http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/wash-u-history-museum-seeking-ferguson-artifacts..
Smith discusses the efforts of local institutions to collect artifacts related to the Ferguson protests. Washington University began a digital repository to preserve photos and video as well as other born-digital records. The Missouri History Museum collected physical objects for their permanent collection, seeing Ferguson as a “unique opportunity to collect artifacts from the present, really, that we hope will represent history in the future.”
Summers, Ed. "#FreddieGray: Social Media Imagery in the Archive." Medium. April 25, 2015. https://medium.com/on-archivy/freddiegray-1c332bca11a0.
Ed Summers reflects on the work he and Bergis Jules are doing to collect #FreddieGray tweets and their associated media (images, video, and audio) as documentary evidence of the arrest and death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore, MD, and the protests that followed. The 190,971 tweets collected with twarc are narrowed down to 1,979 original tweets with embedded media to find the most valuable content for display. A static HTML application is then used to randomly select a tweet and display it on the page using Twitter's embed API. This is one initial attempt to collect and make accessible social media content around a controversial event, and it raises many questions of automation, preservation, presentation, and intellectual property rights.