Stanley Backer Papers 1948-2000

Creator
Backer, Stanley, 1920-
Size
5.5 linear feet
Call number
MC 00303

Stanley Backer (1920-2003) attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earning degrees in engineering and textile technology. He joined the faculty at M.I.T. in 1951 and eventually became the head of the Fibers and Polymers Laboratory. His research in textiles engineering led to a greater understanding of fiber structure and fabric behavior. Backer also led a program to develop one of the first online information retrieval systems, known as the Textile Information Retrieval Product. He died in 2003.

Stanley Backer's papers consist of articles, books, papers, theses and other material reflecting his textile engineering research while attending and teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A Research Files series contains collected information on fabric mechanics, texturing, and other topics. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Special Program series contains material on programs in which Backer had participated. The Supervised Theses series includes those supervised by Backer while a professor at M.I.T. A series of Backer's published works is also included, as well as a list of his collected works.

Biographical/historical note

Stanley L. Backer was born in Boston, Massachusetts on February 9th, 1920. He attended Boston Latin School until graduation in 1937, and earned a bachelor's degree in engineering and manufacturing from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1941. He served in the United States Army from 1941-1944 conducting research for the United States Quartermaster, and continued to work for the Quartermaster for several years after completing his service. He returned to M.I.T. to complete a master's degree in textiles technology in 1948, and a doctorate in mechanical engineering in 1953. In 1951 Backer joined the faculty at M.I.T. as assistant professor, and was promoted to full professor and head of the Fibers and Polymers Laboratory in 1962. His research in textiles engineering led to a better understanding of the physical properties and structural geometry of fibers, allowing the prediction of fabric behavior, which has a wide array of applications. His areas of expertise included the mechanics of textile materials and texturing, as well as the fibrous behavior of rope in a marine environment, and the use of fiber reinforcement in cementitious composites. Backer also led a program in the 1960s sponsored by the United States Commerce Department to develop one of the first online information retrieval systems. Known as the Textile Information Retrieval Product, the interface allowed simultaneous access a database of textile terms in seven different languages. Backer retired as professor emeritus in 1989.

Backer was an active member of the profession, having authored over 90 research publications, and serving on a number of government committees, professional societies, and editorial boards. The Harold DeWitt Smith Award from the American Society for Testing and Materials in 1962, and the Carothers Medal from the Textile Institute in 1992 for creativity in the use of fibers are noted among his many awards and honors.

Stanley Backer died January 18th, 2003 at his home in Newton, Massachusetts. He is survived by his wife, Esther Ross, and two sons, Richard, of Berkeley, California, and Jonathan of New Rochelle, New York.

Scope/content

The bulk of Stanley Backer's papers are articles, books, papers, theses and other material directly pertaining to or associated with his textile engineering research while attending and teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Research Files contain a collection of resources on fabric mechanics, and a collection on textile texturing, both of which were major areas of Backer's study. Several miscellaneous files are also included the series, but were not originally compiled with either of the mentioned resource collections, including fiber structure of rope in a marine environment and fiber structure in cementitious composites. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Special Programs series consists of lecture, seminar, and demonstration materials for programs in which Backer participated. Program topics include: Materials for Parachutes and Retardation Devices, Dynamics of Textile Processes, Performance Characteristics of Textile Materials, Applied Mechanics of Fibrous Structures, Texturing of Thermoplastic Yarns; all of which include rosters of registrants, schedules of speakers, notes, slides and other handouts. Of particular interest is a report on a project led by Backer to develop one of the first online information retrieval systems, and a six-part article by Backer and various colleagues published in the Textile Research Journal on a project on the mechanics of texturing thermoplastic yarns. The Supervised Theses series is a collection of doctorate of science theses which Backer supervised while a professor and head of the Polymer and Fibers Laboratory at M.I.T. Backer's 95 authored and co-authored published articles and papers are included in the Published Works series. And Backer's textiles and information related resources are compiled in the Collected Works series. Items in this series have been integrated into North Carolina State University Libraries' monograph collection for use and circulation. Please see the library catalog for bibliographic information, call number, and availability.

Physical description

11 archival boxes

Arrangement

The collection is arranged into 5 series:

  • Research Files
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology Special Programs
  • Supervised Theses
  • Published Works
  • Collected Works

Use of these materials

The nature of the NCSU Libraries' Special Collections means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine despite reasonable efforts. The NCSU Libraries claims only physical ownership of most Special Collections materials.

The materials from our collections are made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to U.S. Copyright law. The user must assume full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used for academic research or otherwise should be fully credited with the source.

This collection may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations. Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which North Carolina State University assumes no responsibility.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Stanley Backer Papers, MC 00303, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries, Raleigh, NC

Source of acquisition

Received as a gift from Dr. and Mrs. Stanley Backer in December 2000.

Separated material

The items in Series 5 have been integrated into the Libraries' monograph collection. Please check the library catalog for bibliographic information, call number, and availability.

Processing information

Processed by Terra Kridler in August 2005

Encoded by Terra Kridler in August 2005

Research Files 1957-1989

Stanley Backer's Research Files consist of journal articles, typed lectures, book chapters, theses, reports, and other papers pertaining to his research interests as a faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Fabric Mechanics files pertain to characteristics and behaviors of primarily woven and knitted fabrics, as well as those of the yarns and fibers used to make such fabrics. The Texturing files primarily discuss the properties of crimped yarns, processes used for texturing yarns and fabrics, and the mechanical affect of these properties and processes. The Miscellaneous files include other writings relevant to Backer's research.

3 archival boxes, 1.5 linear feet

Fabric Mechanics 1967-1975

The Fabric Mechanics subseries is a collection of lectures, articles, book chapters, and other papers pertaining to mechanical characteristics and behaviors primarily of woven and knitted fabrics, such as elastic resistance, bending, crease resistance and wrinkle resistance, and tearing strength, as well as geometrical properties. Several articles concentrate on the properties of the fibers and yarns used to make woven fabrics, and how their structure affects the mechanics of the fabric. At acquisition the Fabric Mechanics files were assembled in notebook form. The arrangement of the Fabric Mechanics subseries replicates the original order of the files.

List of Contents 1975
Box 1, Folder 1
Figures 1-82 1975
Box 1, Folder 2
Zorowski, C. F. "Dynamic Properties of Continuous Filament Twisted Yarns." 1970
Box 1, Folder 3
P. Grosberg. "Tensile Properties of Woven Fabrics." 1969
Box 1, Folder 4
Hearle, J. W. S., A. Newton. "Nonwoven Fabric Studies: Part XIV: Derivation of Generalized Mechanics by the Energy Method." 1967
Box 1, Folder 5
Grosberg, P. "Lecture No. 42: The Elastic Resistance to Bending of Plain Woven Fabrics."
Box 1, Folder 6
P. Grosberg. "The Geometrical Properties of Plain Clothes." 1969
Box 1, Folder 7
Grosberg, P. "The Geometry of Knitted Fabrics." 1969
Box 1, Folder 8
Grosberg, P. "The Bending of Woven Fabrics: Part I: Hysteresis."
Box 1, Folder 9
P. Grosberg. "The Mechanics of Knitted Fabrics." 1969
Box 1, Folder 10
Grosberg, P. "Handle, Crease, and Wrinkle Resistance and their Relationship to Fabric Bending Behaviour."
Box 1, Folder 11
Grosberg, P. "The Initial Shear of Woven Fabrics."
Box 1, Folder 12
Grosberg, P. "The Load-Extension Behaviour of Plain Weave Fabrics Exact Treatment."
Box 1, Folder 13
Grosberg, P. "The Dimensional Stability of Woven and Knitted Fabrics."
Box 1, Folder 14
Eltayebi, Ahmed. "The Tearing Strength of Woven Fabrics: Methdos of Measuring and Factors Influencing the Tearing Strength of Woven Fabrics."
Box 1, Folder 15
Konopasek, M. "Computer Aided Mechanics of Textile Structures." 1970
Box 1, Folder 16
El-Shiekh, Aly, S. P. Hersh. "The Mechanics of Looped-Pile Carpets: Part I: Deformation." 1969
Box 1, Folder 17
Grosberg, P., J. W. Rhee. "The Effect of Chemical and Mechanical Finishing Treatments on the Bending Properties of Woollen and Worsted Fabrics."
Box 1, Folder 18
Fortess, Fred. "The Correlation of Laboratory Test Methods with the Service Performance of Textiles and Clothing."
Box 1, Folder 19
Fortess, Fred. "Engineering Man-Made Fibers for Fashion and Performance."
Box 1, Folder 20
Lord, P. R. "The Structure of Unconventional Twisted Yarns."
Box 1, Folder 21
Texturing 1969-1974

The Texturing subseries consists of articles, lectures, and other papers pertaining to the physical and mechanical properties of crimped yarns, often made from thermoplastic fibers and have a saw-toothed or curled shape, and the methods and processes used for texturing crimped yarns, including false-twist and draw-twist methods. Relevant articles on snarling, heat setting and treatment, and properties of yarn are also included. At acquisition the Texturing files were assembled in notebook form. The arrangement of the Texturing subseries replicates the original order of the files.

Hearle, J. W. S. "Survey of Textured Products and Properties."
Box 1, Folder 22
Hearle, J. W. S. "Survey of Yarn Texturing Methods."
Box 1, Folder 23
Hearle, J. W. S. "Structural Mechanisms of Troque-Stretch Yarns: The Mechanism of Snarl Formation." 1966
Box 1, Folder 24
Hearle, J. W. S., A. E. Yegin. "The Snarling of Highly Twisted Monofilaments: Part I: The Load-Elongation Behavior with Normal Snarling." 1972
Box 1, Folder 25
Hearle, J. W. S., A. E. Yegin. "The Snarling of Highly Twisted Monofilaments: Part II: Cylindrical Snarling." 1972
Box 1, Folder 26
Hearle, J. W. S. "The Mechanics of Torque-Stretch Yarns: A Correction." 1973
Box 1, Folder 27
Hearle, J. W. S., P. K. Sen Gupta, Anne Matthews. "Changes in Length and Mechanical Properties Due to Single and Double Heat Treatment of Nylon Yarn Under Tension." 1971
Box 1, Folder 28
Backer, Stanley. "Yarn."
Box 1, Folder 29
Hearle, J. W. S., R. Greer. "Fibre Structure." 1970
Box 1, Folder 30
Hearle, J. W. S. "Fine Structure of Fibers."
Box 1, Folder 31
Hearle, J. W. S. "Heat Setting."
Box 1, Folder 32
Hearle, J. W. S. "The Nature of Setting."
Box 1, Folder 33
Hearle, J. W. S. "Crimp Mechanics."
Box 1, Folder 34
Yegin, Ahmet Ertunga. "On the Structural Mechanics of Torque Stretch Yarns." 1969
Box 2, Folder 1
Batra, S. K., A. Tayebi, S. Backer. "The Normal Force Between Twisted Filaments: Part II: Experimental Verification." 1973
Box 2, Folder 2
Tayebi, A., S. Backer. "The Mechanics of Self-Plying Structures: Part I: Monofilament." 1973
Box 2, Folder 3
Backer, Stanley. "Mechanics of False Twist Texturing: An Overview." 1973
Box 2, Folder 4
Backer, Stanley. "Notes on the Mechanics of Texturing Thermoplastic Yarns."
Box 2, Folder 5
Thwaites, J. J. "Crimp Mechanics of Textured Yarns."
Box 2, Folder 6
Thwaites, J. J. "Character of Draw-Textured Yarns and Significance of Denier Variation." 1974
Box 2, Folder 7
Thwaites, J. J. "The Mechanics of Friction-Twisting." 1969
Box 2, Folder 8
Thwaites, J J. "Threadline Torsional Characteristics in the False-Twist Process." 1974
Box 2, Folder 9
Thwaites, J. J. "Linear Density Variations in Draw-Textured Yarns."
Box 2, Folder 10
Batra, Subhash. "A Generalized Model for Crimp Analysis of Multi-Component Fibers: Part I: Theoretical Development." 1974
Box 2, Folder 11
Egbers, G. "The Draw Texturing Process."
Box 2, Folder 12
Egbers, G. "Friction Behavior of Filament Yarn at High Speeds."
Box 2, Folder 13
Egbers, G. "A Method of Continuous Crimp and Bulk Measurement."
Box 2, Folder 14
Lünenscholß, Joachim W., Klaus E. Fischer, Zachariahs Modi. "The Influence of Twisting Art and Texturing Conditions on the Twist Level and Yarn Tension Behavior by Conventional False-Twist Texturing and by False-Twist Simultaneous Draw-Texturing." 1974
Box 2, Folder 15
Lünenscholß, Joachim, Eckhard Siersch. "The Drawing Behavior, the Twist Level Distribution and the Yarn Deformation by False-Twist Simultaneous Draw-Texturising of Different Preoriented Polyester Yarns." 1974
Box 2, Folder 16
Lünenschloß, Joachim W., Liberto Coll-Tortosa. "The Influence of the Spindle Construction and the Texturising Conditions on the Yarn Balloon, Yarn Tension, Yarn Temperature and the Properties of the Texturised Yarns by Conventional False-Twist Texturising and by False-Twist Simultaneous Draw Texturising." 1974
Box 2, Folder 17
Lünenschloß, Joachim W., Erhard W. Kirschbaum. "A New Method to Determine the Torque and Choking Force by False-Twist Texturising with Peg Spindle and Friction Units." 1974
Box 2, Folder 18
Miscellaneous 1957-1989

The Miscellanous subseries of Research Files is composed of theses, technical reports, and other studies relevant to Backer's research interests, including fiber mechanics, effects of a marine environment on nylon rope, and fiber reinforced cementitious composites.

Weissbein, Leonard. "A Study in the Theory of Carrier Dyeing of Hydrophobic Fibers." 1957
Box 3, Folder 1
Kenney, Maryann Cully. "Effects of Fatigue and a Sea Water Environment on Nylon Fibers, Yarns, and Small Ropes." 1957
Box 3, Folder 2
"Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites Technology: Final Technical Report." 1989
Box 3, Folder 3
Monego, Constantin J. "The Mechanics of Rupture of Cotton-Dacron Blended Yarns." 1967
Box 3, Folder 4
Tesoro, Giuliana. "Environmental Degradation of Nylon and Polyester: A Critical Evaluation of the Literature in the Context of Ocean Engineering Applications of Rope." 1981
Box 3, Folder 5
Batra, Subash K., Charles Bell. "On the Efficient Utilization of Natural (Vegetable) Fibers." 1975
Box 3, Folder 6
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Special Programs 1959-1977

During the summer sessions the Massachusetts Institute of Technology holds special programs consisting of series' of lectures, seminars, and demonstrations, intended for field specialists. The material in this series represents the content of several of the programs in which Stanley Backer had participated or attended, including roster of registrants, schedule of speakers and presentations, notes, slides, handouts, and other material. The compiled materials of six programs were relevant to Backer's research in fabric mechanics and behavior. The program on Performance Characteristics of Textile Materials includes a report on one of the first online information retrieval systems, a development program led by Backer. The items are arranged chronologically.

2.5 archival boxes, 1.25 linear feet

Materials for Parachutes and Retardation Devices, July 20-31 1959

Program consists of a discussion of textile processes, materials, and behaviors for the design and use of parachutes and retardation devices. Also an article on multiflash photography.

Box 4, Folder 1-3
Dynamics of Textile Processes, July 6-10 1964

Material includes discussions on the processes of combing, spinning, winding, testing, drying, sewing textiles.

Box 4, Folder 4-5
Performance Characteristics of Textile Materials, July 22-26 1968

Material includes discussion of textile characteristics, such as water absorption, creasing and wrinkle recovery, abrasion resistance, tearing strength, mechanics, fatigue, hysteresis under conditions such as extension, bending and shearing, geometrical properties, and others. Principles of finishing are also discussed as ways to improve performance. A paper titled Design of an On-Line Computer Based Textile Information Retrieval System provides information on a system for textile information storage and retrieval, including a sample dialog between man and machine. Backer led the program to develop this system.

Box 4, Folder 6-9
Applied Mechanics of Fibrous Structures, July 29-August 2 1968

Articles pertain to structures and mechanics of yarns and fibers, including extension and elasticity, effects of shearing, bending, twisting, crimping, and snarl, anisotropy, and tensile properties.

Box 5, Folder 1-4
Dynamics of Textile Processing, August 5-9 1968

Textile processing methods, such as jet texturing, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), stuffer box crimping, drying, spinning, drafting, fatigue, pressing, and needling are analyzed. Papers on papermaking and machinery are included, as well as articles on the physical properties of nonwovens.

Box 5, Folder 5-8
Texturing of Thermoplastic Yarns, July 11-15 1977

Discusses process and mechanics of texturing, primarily by false-twist methods, as well as inherent variability in textured yarns, and problems and future trends in texturing. Also includes a six-part article by Backer and various colleagues published in the Textile Research Journal on a project on the mechanics of texturing thermoplastic yarns.

Box 6, Folder 1-2
Supervised Theses 1953-1992

The collection of theses are those supervised by Stanley Backer while he was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, most of which were written while he was head of the Fibers and Polymers Laboratory. The theses demonstrate the research he supervised in the mechanics of textiles, fibers, and processes, including papers on nonwovens and synthetic fibers, heat setting and thermoplastic materials, false-twist texturing methods, as well as papermaking and cementitious composites. The items are arranged chronologically.

4 archival boxes, 2 linear feet

Ender, Dietrich H. "On the Yielding of Glassy Amorphous Polymers." 1953
Box 6, Folder 3
Petterson, Dewitt Ross. "On the Mechanics of Non-Woven Fabrics." 1958
Box 6, Folder 4-5
Morgan, Henry Merriam. "The Interaction of Textile Structures and High Speed Textile Processes." 1959
Box 6, Folder 6
El-Shiekh, Aly H. M. "On the Mechanics of Twist Insertion." 1965
Box 7, Folder 1
Anderson, Willard W. "The Dynamics of Moving Filaments and Tapes." 1966
Box 7, Folder 2
Popper, Peter. "Mechanics of Bending Fiber Assemblies." 1966
Box 7, Folder 3
Maranci, Artun. "Propagation of Cracks in Brittle Adhesive Joints." 1970
Box 7, Folder 4
Crugnola, Aldo. "Modifications in Molecular Fine Structure and Physico/Mechanical Properties Associated with the Texturing of Synthetic Fibers." 1972
Box 7, Folder 5-6
Tayebi, Amad. "The Mechanics of False-Twist Textured Yarns." 1973
Box 7, Folder 7
Naar, Raymond Z. "Steady State Mechanics of the False Twist Yarn Texturing Process." 1975
Box 8, Folder 1
Lee, Shaw Ming. "Mechanics of Bending of Nonwoven Fabrics." 1978
Box 8, Folder 2
Smith, Steven Craig. "Thermomechanical Response of Textured Yarns." 1978
Box 8, Folder 3-6
Tsai, Yuan-Daw. "Heat Setting of Thermoplastic Filaments." 1982
Box 9, Folder 1
Donner, Benjamin Charles. "High Curvature Bending of Fibrous Structures with Emphasis on Paper and Paperboard." 1985
Box 9, Folder 2
Toney, Mary. "On the Mechanical Behavior of Twisted Synthetic Ropes." 1986
Box 9, Folder 3
Li, Shipeng. "Heat Transfer to Yarn in False-Twist Texturing." 1988
Box 9, Folder 4
Hsu, Peter Taur. "Fracture Mechanics of Synthetic Fiber Reports." 1984
Box 9, Folder 5
Seo, Moon Hwo. "Mechanical Deterioration of Synthetic Fiber Rope in Marine Environment." 1988
Box 10, Folder 1-2
Wang, Youjiang. "Mechanics of Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites." 1989
Box 10, Folder 3
Realff, Mary Lynn. "Mechanical Properties of Fabrics Woven from Yarns Produced by Different Spinning Technologies." 1992
Box 10, Folder 4-5
Published Works 1948-2000

The Published Works series contains 95 papers and articles written by Stanley Backer, showing the progress and dynamics of his research over more than half of a century. Topics include structure and mechanics of fibers and fabrics, the online textile information retrieval system, fibers and rope in a marine environment, and fibers in cementitious composites. Also included are several patents for textile processing methods and apparatuses by Backer. Items are arranged chronologically.

1 archival box, 0.5 linear feet

Bibliography
Box 11, Folder 1
1948-1951
Box 11, Folder 2
1952-1956
Box 11, Folder 3
1960-1967
Box 11, Folder 4
1968-1969
Box 11, Folder 5
1971-1972
Box 11, Folder 6
1973-1978
Box 11, Folder 7
1980-1985
Box 11, Folder 8
1987-1989
Box 11, Folder 9
1990
Box 11, Folder 10
1991-1994
Box 11, Folder 11
1995-1997
Box 11, Folder 12
1998-2000
Box 11, Folder 13

Access to the collection

This collection is open for research; access requires at least 48 hours advance notice. Because of the nature of certain archival formats, including digital and audio-visual materials, access to digital files may require additional advanced notice.

For more information contact us via mail, phone, or our web form.

Mailing address:
Special Collections Research Center
Box 7111
Raleigh, NC, 27695-7111

Phone: (919) 515-2273

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Stanley Backer Papers, MC 00303, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries, Raleigh, NC

Use of these materials

The nature of the NCSU Libraries' Special Collections means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine despite reasonable efforts. The NCSU Libraries claims only physical ownership of most Special Collections materials.

The materials from our collections are made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to U.S. Copyright law. The user must assume full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used for academic research or otherwise should be fully credited with the source.

This collection may contain materials with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations. Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in this collection without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which North Carolina State University assumes no responsibility.