proved enormously appealing to the burgeoning middle class in
Victorian England. During the nineteenth century, museums, botanical
gardens and other scientific exhibitions were created to educate
and entertain the general public and to introduce the discoveries
of science. Among the sciences, entomology proved an especially
popular hobby. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the
majority of scientists consisted of amateur scholars who observed
and recorded everyday phenomena. These hobbyists often compiled
vast private collections of specimens, which they or other scientists
would then catalog. Later in the century, amateurs and trained
scientists would band together to form scientific societies which
served to provide a forum for discussion and debate of current
observations and theories. J. O. Westwood belonged to more than
twenty-five different international natural history societies
by the end of his career. These scientific associations also served
as a source of funding by providing awards or medals with monetary
prizes and by funding teaching positions or examination posts.
In many cases, the societies replaced the private patronage of
earlier periods, in which a benefactor supported the amateur scientist;
this enabled the scientist to flourish as a professional rather
than merely as an amateur.
many ways, Victorian culture shaped Westwood. Science enjoyed
extensive coverage in the popular literature of the period. Scholars
of the Victorian era have attributed this popularity to the rapid
development of science and technology and the move from rural
communities to cities. These changes led the public to romanticize
nature and see plants and animals as exotic.
Donovan, 1768-1837. An Epitome of the Natural
History of the Insects of India.
Drury, 1725-1803. Illustrations of Exotic Entomology.
Donovan, 1768-1837. Natural History of the Insects
of China: The Figures Drawn From Specimens of the Insects.
John Obadiah, 1805-1893. An Introduction to the
Modern Classification of Insects; Founded on the Natural Habits
and Corresponding Organisation of Different Families.
Forbes Royle, 1799?-1858. Illustrations of the
Botany and Other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan
Mountains, and of the Flora of Cashmere.
Obadiah Westwood, 1805-1893. The Cabinet of Oriental
Entomology; Being a Selection of Some of the Rarer and More
Beautiful Species of Insects, Natives of India and the Adjacent
Islands, the Greater Portion of Which are Now for the First
Time Described and Figured.
Moses, (1731?-1785?). The Aurelian: A Natural History
of English Moths and Butterflies, Together With the Plants
on Which They Feed. Drawn, Engraved and Coloured from the
Natural Objects by Moses Harris. New edition, With Their Systematic
Names, Synonyms, and Additional Observations Upon the Habits
of the Species Figured by John O. Westwood.
Naauwkeurige waarneemingen omtrent de veranderingen
van veele insekten of gekorvene diertjes, die im omtrent
vyftig jaaren, zo in Vrankryk, als in Engeland en Holland
by een verzameld, naar 't leven konstig afgetekend, en it
't koper gebragt zyn.
Henry Noel, (1810-1879) and Westwood, John Obadiah, 1805-1893.
British Moths and Their Transformations.
Henry Noel, (1810-1879). The Art of Illumination
and Missal Painting. A Guide to Modern Illuminators; Illustrated
by a Series of Specimens, from Richly Illuminated MSS of Various
Periods, Accompanied by a Set of Outlines, to be Coloured
by the Student According to the Theories Developed in the