Suborder Auchenorrhyncha

(Cicadas, Leafhoppers, Planthoppers, Spittlebugs, and Treehoppers)

photo of a planthopper

Selected Links

Selected References

The hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha includes cicadas, spittlebugs (or froghoppers), leafhoppers, treehoppers, and planthoppers. More than 42,000 extant species are described, and many more await discovery. The suborder may be divided into two major groups (treated as infraorders by some workers) and four superfamilies as follows: infraorder Cicadomorpha with superfamilies Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittlebugs), and Membracoidea [including Cicadelloidea] (leafhoppers and treehoppers), and infraorder Fulgoromorpha with only the superfamily Fulgoroidea (planthoppers). The monophyly of the suborder Auchenorrhyncha has been questioned based primarily on early molecular studies, and additional work on this question is merited. No single classification of the order Hemiptera is universally accepted, and various workers differ in the numbers of suborders, superfamilies, families, subfamilies, and tribes they recognize. During Z. P. Metcalf's era, the Auchenorrhyncha were considered a suborder of the order "Homoptera", a group now known to be paraphyletic.

Distribution

Members of the suborder Auchenorrhyncha occur in all major zoogeographic regions, but are unknown from Antarctica. Especially species rich in the tropics, the suborder constitutes a major component of the phytophagous fauna in practically every terrestrial ecosystem. Dr. Metcalf's remarkable series of taxonomic catalogues on the group covers all of the superfamilies and gives the recorded distributions for thousands of auchenorrhynchous species.

Morphology

Although morphologically diverse, members of the suborder Auchenorrhyncha share the following combination of features that distinguish them from other Hemiptera: (1) the mouthparts arise from the back of the head (in contrast to arising from the front of the head in Heteroptera or from between the forelegs in Sternorrhyncha); (2) the antennae are relatively short and bristlelike; and (3) the adult tarsi have 3 subsegments (2 or fewer subsegments are present in all Sternorrhyncha and in some Heteroptera). Nymphs of many resemble adults in morphology and habits, but lack ocelli, may have fewer tarsal segments than the adults, and develop wing buds only in their later instars. The name Auchenorrhyncha, or "neck-beaks", refers to the location of the mouthparts.

Ecology and Behavior

Nearly all species of Auchenorrhyncha use their piercing-sucking mouthparts to feed on plant sap (phloem or xylem). Certain planthoppers, however, feed on fungi or mosses. Some species rank high among plant pests and cause serious damage through sucking plant sap, transmitting plant pathogens, depositing their eggs in plant tissue, or some combination of these activities. In addition to the morphological features listed above, members of the Auchenorrhyncha have a complex system for acoustic or substrate-mediated communication, and many have excellent jumping abilities. The calls of cicadas are a familiar example of acoustic communciation, but males throughout the Auchenorrhyncha (and females of many leafhoppers and at least a few cicadas and planthoppers) also produce vibrational signals by way of specialized organs called tymbals. The signals, usually inaudible to our ears, are transmitted through plants. Aside from cicadas, most members of the suborder are known for their leaping abilities as reflected in the common names leafhoppers, froghoppers, planthoppers, and treehoppers.

Auchenorrhyncha prepared by L. L. Deitz, P. A. Alvarez, C. R. Bartlett, J. R. Cryan, C. H. Dietrich, and R. A. Rakitov. 1 December 2008.

Auchenorrhyncha: Selected Links (General, Regional Faunas, Literature, Journals, Collections, Workers)

Compiled by P. A. Alvarez, L. L. Deitz, and D. R. Nimocks. 1 December 2008. Potentially useful sites may have been omitted because reviewers [Acknowledgments] noted significant misidentifications or other concerns.

General

Tymbal, The Auchenorrhyncha Website.

Auchenorrhyncha Ecology Group.

Laboratory for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics [J.R. Cryan].

Tree of Life Web Project: Hemiptera.

Photographs of Hemiptera.

Iowa State Entomology Index of Internet Resources. Useful links for Auchenorrhyncha.

Open Directory Project: links on Homoptera.

World Biodiversity Database (ETI-Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification): taxonomic database.

ITIS-Integrated Taxonomic Information System: Auchenorrhyncha.

Gernot Kunz’s Website. Images of leafhoppers, planthoppers, and relatives. In German.

Regional Faunas

Afrotropical Region

Agricultural Research Council: Auchenorrhyncha

Australian Region

Identification Keys and Checklists for the Leafhoppers, Planthoppers and Their Relatives occurring in Australia and Neighbouring Areas [M.J. Fletcher, with M.-C. Larivière].

Australian Faunal Directory: main checklist.

Australian Insect Common Names.

New Zealand Hemiptera Web Site: checklist, identification keys, types.

Auchenorrhyncha from Brisbane Area, Queensland, Australia.

Nearctic Region

Nomina Insecta Nearctica

Singing Insects of North America.

Forestry Images (Homoptera): images related to forest health [USDA].

Arthropods of Orange County, California (Homoptera).

Florida Nature: Homoptera.

Neotropical Region

Fauna Entomologica de Nicaragua: Homoptera. In Spanish.

INBIO: Checklist of Homoptera (Costa Rica). In Spanish and English.

Palearctic Region

Europe

Fauna Iberica. Species Checklist. In Spanish and English.

Fauna Italia: Species Checklist. In Italian and English.

Checklist of UK Recorded Auchenorrhyncha.

Checklist of Finnish Species: Homoptera. In Finish and English.

Checklist of the Auchenorrhyncha of Germany [Herbert Nickel]

Les Espèces de HYPPZ (INRA): information about some economically important vectors in France. In French and English.

Some Pictures of European Insects [Alan Hadley].

Zikaden, Oft verkannt und wenig bekannt. [Auchenorrhyncha, often misjudged and little known]. In German.

BioImages: The Virtual Field Guide: Auchenorrhyncha (United Kingdom)

Isekten Wirbeltiere Parasitoide [Insects, vertebrates, parasitoids]: Auchenorrhyncha. In German.

Japan

Japanese Auchenorrhyncha Image Gallery [Keiji Morishima]. In Japanese and English.

Cicadidae in Japan. In Japanese and English.

Russia

Cicadidae (Russia). In Russian.

Literature on Auchenorrhyncha

Recent Publications on Auchenorrhyncha (TYMBAL website).

North Carolina State University Bibliography on Homoptera.

Z. P. Metcalf Collection of Literature on Auchenorrhyncha.

Electronic Biologia Centrali-Americana.

Nomenclator Zoologicus Search: generic names of animals: 1758-1994.

A. F. Emeljanov: list of publications

List of Cicada Literature

Important Papers for Central Europe [Herbert Nickel]

New Auchenorrhyncha Literature [Herbert Nickel

Australian Faunal Directory: references on Fulgoroidea.

Australian Faunal Directory: references on Cicadoidea.

Australian Faunal Directory: references on Cercopoidea.

Australian Faunal Directory: references on Membracoidea [sensu lato].

Journals on Auchenorrhyncha

Beiträge zur Zikadenkunde. [Contributions to Auchenorrhyncha Science].

Research Collections of Auchenorrhyncha

Insect and Spider Collections of the World: links.

Iowa State University Index of Collections: links.

Benedict Dybowski Zoological Museum, Lviv National University, Ukraine: E. F. Germar Collection

Bishop Museum Collections: holdings of Cicadellidae.

California Academy of Sciences: primary types of Hemiptera.

Museum Lyon, France: species list of Fulgoromorpha.

North Carolina State University Insect Collection: species and types.

Ohio State University Insect Collection: primary types.

United States National Musem of Natural History Homoptera Collections Profiles

University of Michigan: holdings of cicadas.

University of Wisconsin-Madison: insect research collection.

Weisbaden Museum. Kirschbaum Collection of Auchenorrhyncha. In German and English.

Zoologische Staatssammulng München: species and types. In German.

Northern Arizona University, Colorado Plateau Museum of Arthropodo Biodiversity: holdings of Auchenorrhyncha.

New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC), Auckland

Auchenorrhyncha Workers' Websites

World Taxonomist Database (ETI-Expert Center for Taxonomic Identification).

CAVICHIOLI, Rodney R.

COOLEY, John

CRYAN, Jason R.

DEITZ, Lewis L.

DIETRICH, Christopher H.

DMITRIEV, Dmitry A.

EMELJANOV, A. F.: list of publications.

GOGALA, Matija

LARIVIÈRE, Marie-Claude; resouces on New Zealand fauna.

MARSHALL, David

MEJDALANI, Gabriel

NICKEL, Herbert

RAKITOV, Roman A.

SFORZA, Rene

SIMON, Chris M.

TAKIYA, Daniela M.

URBAN, Julie M.

YOUNG, David A., Jr. (1915-1991): list of publications.

ZINK, Andy

Selected References on Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera): 1956-2008

Prepared by L. L. Deitz, P. A. Alvarez, C. R. Bartlett, J. R. Cryan, S. H. McKamey, and J. B. van Kretschmar. 1 December 2008.

Anufriev, G. A.; Emel´yanov, A. F. 1988a. [1. Suborder Cicadinea (Auchenorrhyncha) -- cicads.] pp. 12-495. In Ler, P. A. [Keys to the Identification of Insects of the Soviet Far East. Vol. 2: Homoptera and Heteroptera.] Nauka, Leningrad. 972 + [4] pp. [in Russian; citation in part from Zoological Record and WorldCat; second author sometimes cited as Emeljanov]

Arnett, R. H., Jr. 2000a. American Insects: a Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico. 2nd edit. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. xvii + 1003 pp.

Biedermann, R.; Niedringhaus, R. 2004a. Die Zikaden Deutschlands. Bestimmungstafeln für alle Arten. Wissenshaftlich Akademischer Buchvertrieb-Fünd, Scheessel, Germany. [ii] + iv + 409 pp.

Campbell, B. C.; Steffen-Campbell, J. D.; Sorensen, J. T.; Gill, R. J. 1995a. Paraphyly of Homoptera and Auchenorrhyncha inferred from 18S rDNA nucleotide sequences. Syst. Entomol. 20(3): 175-194.

Carpenter, F. M. 1992a. Superclass Hexapoda. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, & University of Kansas, Lawrence) Part R, Arthropoda 4(3): [i]-xxi, 1-[278]; 4(4): [i]-ii, [279]-655.

Carver, M.; Gross, G. E.; Woodward, T. E. 1991a. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects, etc.). pp. 429-509. In CSIRO (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. 2nd edit. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. Vol.1: [i-xvii], 1-542.

Chinery, M. 1993a. Insects of Britain & Northern Europe. 3rd edit. (Collins Field Guide). HarperCollins, London. 320 pp. + [126 plates]. [see Sub-order Homoptera, pp. 114-125, plates 12-13]

Claridge, M. F. 1985a. Acoustic signals in the Homoptera: behavior, taxonomy and evolution. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 30: 297-317.

Cobben, R. H. 1965a. Das aero-mikropylare System der Homoptereneier und Evolutionstrends bei Zikadeneiern (Hom. Auchenorhyncha). Zool. Beitr. (n.s.) 11: 13-69.

Cryan, J. R. 2005a. Molecular phylogeny of Cicadomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea and Membracoidea): adding evidence to the controversy. Syst. Entomol. 30: 563-574.

Cryan, J. R.; Urban, J. M. 2012a. Higher-level phylogeny of the insect order Hemiptera:is Auchenorrhyncha really paraphyletic? Systematic Entomology 37: 7–21. Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00611.x/abstract

Dietrich, C. H. 2003a. Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas, spittlebugs, leafhoppers, treehoppers, and planthoppers). pp. 66-74. In Resh, V. H.; Cardé, R. T. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press, Amsterdam. xxviii + 1266 pp.

Dietrich, C. H. 2005a. Keys to the families of Cicadomorpha and subfamilies and tribes of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Florida Entomol. 88(4): 502-517.

Dietrich, C. H. 2006a. Annotated Bibliography of Literature Useful for Identification of Leafhoppers and Related Cicadomorpha. [organized by morphological studies, catalogues and bibliographies, regional works, and major taxonomic works] Online: http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/~dietrich/LHbibliog.html

Dohlen, C. D. von; Moran, N. A. 1995a. Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon. J. Mol. Evol. 41: 211-223.

Dolling, W. R. 1991b. The Hemiptera. Natural History Museum Publications, Oxford University Press, Oxford. ix + 274 pp.

Dworakowska, I. 1988a. Main veins of the wings of Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta, Rhynchota: Hemelytrata). Entomol. Abh., Staatl. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden 52(1-3): 63-108.

Entomological Information Services. 1997a. Homoptera. pp. 249-489. In Nomina Insecta Neartica: a Checklist of the Insects of North America. Entomological Information Services, Rockville, Maryland. Vol. 4 (Non-Holometabolous Orders). 731 pp. [caution: names in this work may not follow the 1999 International Code of Zoological Nomenclature]

Emel'yanov, A. F. 1964a, 1967a. Suborder Cicadinea (Auchenorrhyncha). In Bei-Bienko, G. Ya. (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the European USSR I. Opredelitel' Nasekomyrh Evropetskoy Chasti SSSR 84: 337-437 (1964a). [in Russian; English translation: Suborder Cicadinea (Auchenorrhyncha). In Bei-Bienko, G. Ya. (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the European USSR I. Keys to the Fauna of the USSR (Israel Program for Scientific Translation: TT 66-51068, Jerusalem) 84: 421-551 (1967a); author sometimes cited as Emeljanov]

Emelyanov, A. F. 1987a. [Phylogeny of Cicadina (Homoptera: Cicadina) based on comparative morphological data.]. Trudy Vses. Entomol. Obshch. Akad. Nauk SSSR 69: 19-109. [in Russian; author sometimes cited as Emeljanov]

Emeljanov, A.F.; Kirillova, V. I. 1991a. Trends and modes of the karyotype evolution in the Cicadina. II. Peculiarities and evolutionary changes of the karyotypes in the superfamilies Cercopoidea, Cicadoidea, Fulgoroidea and in the Cicadina as a whole (Homoptera). Entomol. Obozr.70(4): 796-817, 950-951. [in Russian with English summary]

Fletcher, M. J. 1999a [updated periodically]. Recent Publications on Auchenorrhyncha. Online: http://www.agric.nsw.gov.au/Hort/ascu/tymbal/publicat.htm

Ghosh, A. K. (ed.). 1994a. Fauna of West Bengal. Part 5 (Insecta: Hemiptera). Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. [iv] + 558.

Grimaldi, D. A. 1996a. Amber: Window to the Past. Abrams, New York. 216 pp.

Grimaldi, D. A.; Engel, M. S. 2005a. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. xv + 755 pp. [see chapter 8, The paraneopteran orders, pp. 261-330]

Hamilton, K. G. A. 1981a. Morphology and evolution of the rhynchotan head (Insecta: Hemiptera: Homoptera). Canad. Entomol. 113(11): 953-974.

Holzinger, W. E. (ed.). 2002a. Zikaden: Leafhoppers, Planthoppers, and Cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia 4 (Zugleich Kataloge des Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseums), Neue Folge 176: i-viii, 1-556. [includes chapters by various authors in German, English, and French]

Holzinger W. E.; Kammerlander, I.; Nickel, H. 2003a. The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe - Die Zikaden Mitteleuropas. Vol. 1: Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excl. Cicadellidae. Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden. xv + 673 pp.

Hua, L.-Z. 2000a. List of Chinese Insects. Vol 1. Zhongshan University Press, Guangzhou. [vi] + 448 pp. + [3 pp. errata].

Johnson, W. T.; Lyon, H. H. 1991a. Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs. 2nd edit., revised. Comstock, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 560 pp.

Kirillova, V. I. 1986a, 1987b. Chromosome numbers of the leafhoppers (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) of the world fauna. I. Superfamilies Fulgoroidea, Cercopoidea, and Cicadoidea. Entomol. Obozr. 65(1): 115-[125] (1986a). [in Russian; English translation: Entomol. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 65(4): 34-47 (1987b).]

Kosztarab, M. 1982a. Homoptera. pp. 447 470. In Parker, S. P. (ed.). Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw Hill, New York. Vol. 2. [viii] + 1232 pp.

Kosztarab, M.; O'Brien, L. B.; Stoetzel, M. B.; Deitz, L. L.; Freytag, P. H. 1990a. Problems and needs in the study of Homoptera in North America. pp. 119-145. In Kosztarab, M.; Schaefer, C. W. (eds.). Systematics of the North American Insects and Arachnids: Status and Needs. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Information Series 90-1. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg. Virginia. xii + 247 pp.

Kwon, Y. J.; Huh, E. Y. 2001a. Homoptera (Suborder Auchenorrhyncha). Economic Insects of Korea 19. Insecta Koreana Suppl. 26: [1-461].

Labandeira, C. C. 1994a. A compendium of fossil insect families. Milwaukee Public Mus. Contrib. Biol. & Geol. 88: [i-ii], 1-71.

Le Quesne, W. J. 1960a. Hemiptera, Fulgormorpha. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects (Royal Entomological Society of London) 2(3): 1-68.

Le Quesne, W. J. 1965a. Cicadomorpha (excluding Deltocephalinae and Typhlocybinae). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects (Royal Entomological Society of London) 2(2a): 1-64.

Le Quesne, W. J. 1969a. Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Deltocephalinae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects (Royal Entomological Society of London) 2(2b): 65-148.

Le Quesne, W. J.; Payne, K. R. 1981a. Cicadellidae (Typhlocybinae), with a check list of the British Auchenorrhyncha. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects (Royal Entomological Society of London) 2(2): [1]-95.

Lee, C. E. (ed.) 1979a. Illustrated Flora and Fauna of Korea, Vol. 23 (Insecta 7). Ministry of Education, Seoul. 1070 pp. [in Korean, synonomic checklist of Auchenorrhyncha, pp. 799-1018 (by Lee, C. E.; Kwon, Kwon, Y. J.) in English]

Mariconi, F. A. M. 1976a. Inseticidas e Seu Emprêgo no Combate às Pragas. [3rd edit., revised]. A Gazeta Maçônica, São Paulo. [xvi] + 305 pp.

Marshall, S. A. 2006a. Insects -- Their Natural History and Diversity: with a Photographic Guide to Insects of Eastern North America. Firefly Books, Buffalo, New York. 718 pp. [Auchenorrhyncha: pp. 102-107, 139-151 (photographs) , 635-639]

Maw, H. E. L.; Foottit, R. G.; Hamilton, K. G. A.; Scudder, G. G. E. 2000a. Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska. NRC-CNRC, NRC (National Research Council) Research Press, Ottawa. viii + 220 pp.

Metcalf, Z. P.; Wade, V. 1963a. A Bibliography of the Membracoidea and Fossil Homoptera (Homoptera: Auchenorhyncha). North Carolina State [University], Raleigh. iv + 200 pp. [with introduction by Wade, V.]

Metcalf, Z. P.; Wade, V. 1966a. A Catalogue of the Fossil Homoptera (Homoptera: Auchenorhyncha). General Catalogue of the Homoptera (North Carolina State University, Raleigh), Supplement to Fascicle I: [i]-iv, 1-245.

Nast, J. 1972a. Palaearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). An Annotated Check List. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa. 550 pp. [+ errata].

Nast, J. 1979a. Palaearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera). Part 2. Bibliography; addenda and corrigenda. Ann. Zool. (Warszawa) 34(18): [481-500]. [bibliography for Nast 1972a]

Nast, J. 1987a. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Europe. Ann. Zool. (Warszawa) 40(15): [535]-661.

Nault, L. R.; J. G. Rodriguez, J. G. (eds.). 1985a. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers. Wiley, New York. [xviii] + 500 pp. [chapters by various authors]

Nickel, H. 2003a. The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Germany (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha): Patterns and Strategies in a Highly Diverse Group of Phytophagous Insects. Pensoft Publisher, Sofia-Moscow, and Goecke & Evers, Keltern. x + 460 pp. [chapter 4: review of species, pp. 20-236]

Nickel, H. 2003b [updated periodically]. Bibliography of the Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe. Online: http://wwwuser.gwdg.de/~hnickel/litII_eng.htm

Nickel, H. 2004a [updated periodically]. Neue Literatur über Zikaden. Online: http://wwwuser.gwdg.de/~hnickel/neueliteratur.htm

O'Brien, L. B. (coordinator); Stoetzel, M. B.; Miller, D. R. 1991a. Order Homoptera. pp. 66-111. In Stehr, F. W. (ed.). Immature Insects. Vol. 2. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa. xvi + 975 pp.

Ossiannilsson, F. 1978a-1983a. The Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. [Parts 1-3]. Fauna Entomol. Scandinavica 7(1): [1]-222 [1978a (Part 1)]; 7(2): 223-593 [1981a (Part 2); 7(3): [593-979] [1983a (Part 3)].

Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992a. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. xiii + 350 pp. [see chapter 4]

Remane, R. 1993a. Zikaden: Kennenlernen, Beobachten. Naturbuch Verlag, Augsburg. 288 pp.

Richards, O. W.; Davies, R. G. 1977a. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology. Volume 2: Classification and Biology. 10th edit. Halsted, New York. [i]-viii, [419]-1354. [see section on Hemiptera, pp. 679-781]

Sander, F.; Müller, H. J.; Köhler, G.; Bährmann, R. 1995a. Homoptera. Pflanzensaftsauger. pp. 129-149. In Müller, H. J. (initiator); Bährmann, R. (ed.). Bestimmung wirbelloser Tiere. Bildtafeln für zoologische bestimmungsübungen und Exkursionen. 3rd edit. Fischer, Jena. xvi + 362 pp.

Shcherbakov, D. E. 1981a, 1982b. Diagnostics of the families of Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) on the basis of the wings. [parts I and II]. Entomol. Obozr. 60(4): 828-843 (1981a [Part I, Fore wing]; 61(3): 518-536 (1982a [Part II, Hindwing]). [in Russian; English translations: Shcherbakov 1981b and 1982b: Entomol. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 60(4): 64-81 (1981b); 61(3): 70-78 (1982b)].

Sorensen, J. T.; Campbell, B. C.; Gill, R. J.; Stephan-Campbell, J. D. 1995a. Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny; eco-evolutionary and cladistic iimplications within pre-Heteropterodea Hemiptera (s. l.) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders. Pan-Pacific Entomol. 71(1): 31-60.

Strümpel, H. 1983a. Homoptera (Pflanzensauger). Handbuch der Zoologie (Berlin) 4(28): 1-222, i-xi.

Theron, J. G.; Millar, I.; Ben-Dov, Y. 1985a. Suborder Homoptera. pp. 152-175. In Scholtz, C. H.; Holm, E. (eds.). Insects of Southern Africa. Butterworth, Durban. [viii] + 502 pp.

Triplehorn, C. A.; Johnson, N. F. 2004a [2004 (dated 2005)]. Order Hemiptera: true bugs, cicadas, hoppers, psyllids, whiteflies, aphids, and scale insects. pp. 268-332. In Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects. 7th edit. Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California. x + 864.

Vilbaste, J. 1971a. Eesti Tirdid. Homoptera: Cicadinea I. Lametirtlased (Tettigometridae), Kiiltirtlased (Cixiidae), Rohutirtlased (Delphacidae), Laanetirtlased (Achilidae), Kooriktirlased (Issidae), Siristilased (Cicadidae), Vahutajalased (Aphrophoridae), Küürtirtlased (Membracidae). [Die Zikaden Estlands. I.] Valgus, Tallinn (Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia, Zooloogia & Botaanika Instituut [Acad. Sciences Estonian SSR, Institute Zoology & Botany]). 283 pp. [in Estonian; German summary]

von Dohlen, C. D.; Moran, N. A. 1995a. Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon. J. Mol. Evol. 41:211-223.

Wilson, M.R.; Claridge, M. F. 1991a. Handbook for the Identification of Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Rice. CAB International for International Institute of Entomology in Association with Natural Resources Institute, Wallingford, Oxon, United Kingdom. x + 142 pp.

Wilson, M. R.; Nault, L. R. (eds.). 1987a. Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Economic Importance. CAB Int. Inst. Entomol., London. xiii + 368 pp.

Woodward, T. E., Evans, J. W.; Eastop, V. F. 1970a. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc). pp. 387-457. In Mackerras, I. M. (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. [1st edit.]. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Australia. xiii + 1029 pp.

Woodward, T. E.; Eastop, V. F.; Evans, J. W. 1974a. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc). pp. 52-57. In Waterhouse, D. F. (ed.). The Insects of Australia. A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Supplement 1974. Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Australia. viii + 146 pp.

Yang, C.-T.; Chang, T.-Y. 2000a. The External Male Genitalia of Hemiptera (Homoptera -Heteroptera). Shih Way, Tiachung, Taiwan. 746 pp.

Yoshizawa, K.; Saigusa T. 2001a. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure, with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera). Syst. Entomol. 26(1): 1-13.

Yuan, F.; Zhang, Y. 1999a. Class Insecta: Order Homoptera. pp. 392-441. In Zheng, L.; Hui, H. (eds.). Insect Classification. Nanjing Normal University Publishing House, Nanjing. Parts I & II. v + 1070 pp.

Back to the top