American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists
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Content linked is from "SUGGESTED RESOURCE MATERIAL FOR ABVO EXAMINATION" Revised January 2, 2014.
All Written Examination questions are supported by a reference within the past seven publication years or from a textbook or journal article on the list of "Required" references.
Anatomy, Histology, Embryology
- Evans and Christensen. Miller's anatomy of the dog (Ocular and orbital sections) 3rd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1993. (Chapters on eye, orbit, and cranial nerves). [4th ed. 2013 also available, among others]
- Moses. Adler's physiology of the eye. Mosby, 11th ed. 2010. (Most recent edition) [also avaialble as online book]
- Gelatt (ed.) Veterinary Ophthalmology (5th ed.) Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. (chapter 7 by Regnier, Clode, Rankin and Herring)
- Dubielzig. Veterinary ocular pathology : a comparative review. New York : Saunders, 2010.
- Jubb and Kennedy. Pathology of domestic animals. 5th ed. Edinburgh; New York: Elsevier Saunders, 2007 (Most recent edition)(eye chapter only). (review general ocular pathology, the histology and basic mechanisms of pathologic lesions for each section of the eye, and pathologic features of diseases directly applicable to veterinary medicine)
- Gelatt (ed.) Veterinary ophthalmology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, (Most recent edition). (Chapter by Shamir and Ofri). 5th ed, 2013
- Miller's anatomy of the dog. Evans, Howard. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders (Most recent edition) (cranial nerve section).
- Eisner. Eye surgery; an introduction to operative technique. 2nd rev. Berlin, New York, Springer Verlag, (Most recent edition).
- Troutman RC. Microsurgery of the anterior segment of the eye. Volume 1. Introduction and Basic Techniques. Mosby, 1974.
- Gelatt (ed.) Veterinary ophthalmology. (5th edition) Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. (Chapter 11 by Wilkie)
- Seibel BS. Phacodynamics: mastering the the tools and techniques of phacoemulsification surgery. 4th ed. Thorofare, NJ : SLACK, 2005. (Most recent edition).
- Veterinary Clinics of North America 27:5. Surgical Management of Ocular Disease. September 1997.
- Gelatt. Veterinary ophthalmology. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 20
- Veterinary Clinics of North America (All issues and sections relating to ophthalmology from the year 2000-present. Individual issues/sections specified elsewhere in this reading list are also recommended)
- Gilger BC. Equine ophthalmology. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Saunders, 2011. [Also available as online book.]
Textbooks Recommended for Image Recognition exam preparation
The following texts may be useful in preparing for the Image Recognition portion of the examination. No questions will be derived from these texts for the Written portion of the examination.
- Barnett KC. Color Atlas of Veterinary Ophthalmology, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1990. (Most recent edition).
- Barnett KC. Equine ophthalmology : an atlas and text 2nd ed. Edinburgh, Saunders, 2004. [NB: Title listed on reading list is Color atlas and text of equine ophthalmology. (Most recent edition).
- Ketring KL, Glaze MB. Atlas of feline ophthalmology. Trenton, N.J.: Veterinary Learning Systems, 1994. ((Most recent edition).
- Joan Dziezyc, Nicholas J. Millichamp. Color atlas of canine and feline ophthalmology. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2004. (Most recent edition).
- Martin CL. Ophthalmic disease in veterinary medicine. Charles L. Martin. London: Manson Publishing/Veterinary Press, 2005. (Most recent edition).
- Brooks DE. Equine ophthalmology for the equine practitioner. 2nd ed. Teton New Media, 2008. (Most recent edition).
Past Seven Years of journal articles in print prior to January 1 of the year of the examination. Date of e-publication is irrelevant. Example: for the 2014 ABVO Exam, the hard copy publication dates covered on the exam range from January 1, 2007-October 31, 2013.
** Note: Beginning with journal publication dates of January 1, 2010 and later, no questions on the Written examination will be derived from case reports that involve single animals. Review of images in such case reports is suggested for Image Recognition exam preparation.
- American Journal of Veterinary Research
- Canadian Veterinary Journal
- Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice (All issues/articles relating to ophthalmology)
- Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice / Topics in Companion Animal Medicine (All issues/articles relating to ophthalmology)
- Equine Veterinary Journal
- Journal of Small Animal Practice
- Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
- Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
- Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (JVIM)
- Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
- Veterinary Ophthalmology
- Veterinary Pathology
- Veterinary Record
- Veterinary Surgery
(Not: Articles from these veterinary journals should be reviewed for any situation or disease that involves ocular, periocular, or neuro-ophthalmic structures or systemic conditions relevant to opthalmic disease.)
- Current Eye Research
- Experimental Eye Research
- Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
- Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
- Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Note: Review of basic science and human clinical journals should be limited to those articles dealing with situations or diseases directly applicable to veterinary ophthalmology (i.e.-where a common domestic animal is used as a animal model. Review of human clinical conditions or basic science articles unrelated to veterinary ophthalmology is not necessary for exam preparation.
Recommended, Non-required Reading
The following texts and journal articles are considered essential reading for veterinary ophthalmologists and opthalmology residents. However, specific exam questions will not originate from these books, most of which are out of print, but still available in many veterinary school libraries.
- Duke-Elder. System of ophthalmology. Vol. 1 The eye in evolution. St. Louis, Mosby, 1958-76. (especially important are chapters on exotic and domestic species).
- Prince. Comparative anatomy of the eye. Prince, Jack Harvey. Springfield, Ill., Thomas. 1956 (recommend review of the rabbit, pig, ruminant sections; other species covered in more contemporary texts- see below).
- Lavach. Large animal ophthalmology. St. Louis: Mosby, 1990
- Rubin. Atlas of veterinary ophthalmoscopy. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1974
- Rubin. Inherited eye diseases in purebred dogs. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989
Access to articles requires NCSU ID and password unless article citation is followed by (Open Access).
- Acland, G.M., and Aguirre, G.D.: Retinal degenerations in the dog: IV. Early retinal degeneration (erd) in Norwegian Elkhounds. Exp. Eye Res., 44:491-521, 1987.
- Aguirre, G.D., and Acland, G.M.: Variations in retinal degeneration phenotype inherited at the prcd. locus. Exp. Eye. Res. 46:663-87,1988.
- Aguirre, G.D., and Laties, A.: Pigment epithelial dystrophy in the dog. Exp. Eye. Res., 23:247, 1976. [Poor image quality noted]
- Aguirre, G.D., and Rubin, L.F.: Progressive retinal atrophy in the Miniature Poodle: An electrophysiologic study. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 160:191-201,1972.
- Aguirre GD, Rubin LF, Bistner SI. Development of the canine eye. Am J Vet Res 1972;33(12):2399-2414.
- Aguirre, G.D., et al.: Rod-cone dysplasia in Irish Setters: A defect in cyclic GMP metabolism in visual cells. Science, 201:1133, 1978.
- Aguirre, G.D.: Electroretinography in veterinary ophthalmology. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc., 9:234-7, 1973.
- Aguirre, G.D.: Retinal degeneration in the dog. I. Rod dysplasia. Exp. Eye Res., 26:233-53, 1977.
- Albert, D.M., et al.: Retinal neoplasia and dysplasia. I. Induction by feline leukemia virus. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 16:325-37, 1977. (Open Access)
- Albert, D.M., et al: Canine herpes-induced retinal dysplasia and associated ocular anomalies. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 15:267, 1976.
- Anderson: Morphologic recovery in the reattached retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 27(2):168-183, 1986. (Open Access)
- Bahn CF, Glassman RM, MacCallum DK, Lillie JH, Meyer RF, Robinson BJ, Rich NM.: Postnatal development of corneal endothelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1986 Jan;27(1):44- 51. (Open Access)
- Bedford PGC. A gonioscopic study of the iridocorneal angle in the English and American breeds of cocker spaniel and the basset hound. J Small Anim Pract 1977;18:631-642.
- Bellhorn, R.W., and Bellhorn, M.S.: The avian pecten. I. Fluorescein permeability. Ophthalmic Res., 7:1, 1975.
- Bellhorn, R.W., Aguirre, G.D., and Bellhorn, M.B.: Feline central retinal degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 13:608-16, 1974. (Open Access)
- Bellhorn, R.W.: A survey of ocular findings in 16-to-24-week-old beagles. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 162:139-41, 1973.
- Bellhorn, R.W.; Fluorescein fundus photography in veterinary ophthalmology. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc., 9:227-33, 1973.
- Bergsma, D.R., and Brown, K.S.: White fur, blue eyes and deafness in the domestic cat. J. Hered., 62:171, 1971.
- Berson, E.L., et al.: Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. II. Supplementation with methionine, cysteine, or taurine. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 15:52, 1976. (Open Access)
- Bill, A.: Formation and drainage of aqueous humor in cats. Exp. Eye Res., 5:185-, 1966.
- Bistner, S.I., Rubin, L.F., and Saunders, L.Z.: The ocular lesions of bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease. Pathol Vet (listed as Vet. Pathology), 7:272, 1970. (Open Access)
- Blair, N.P., Dodge, J.T., and Schmidt, G.M.: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Labrador Retrievers. I. Development of retinal tears and detachment. Arch. Ophthalmol., 103:842-7, 1985.
- Blair, N.P., Dodge, J.T., and Schmidt, G.M.: Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Labrador Retrievers. II. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Arch. Ophthalmol., 103:848-54, 1985.
- Bok: Retinal photoreceptor-pigment epithelium interactions. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 26(11):1659-1694, 1985. (Open Access)
- Buyukmihci, N.C., Aguirre, G., and Marshall, J.: Retinal degenerations in the dog. II. Development of the retina in rod-cone dysplasia. Exp. Eye Res., 30:575, 1980.
- Buyukmihci, N.C.: Photic retinopathy in the dog. Exp. Eye. Res., 33:95-109, 1981.
- Carmichael, L.E.: The pathogenesis of ocular lesions of infectious canine hepatitis I. Pathology and virological observations. Pathol. Vet., 1:73-95, 1964.
- Carmichael, L.E.: The pathogenesis of ocular lesions of infectious canine hepatitis II. Experimental ocular hypersensitivity produced by the virus. Pathol. Vet., 2:344-59, 1965.
- Chase, J.: The evolution of retinal vascularization in mammals. Ophthalmology, 89:1518-25, 1982.
- Crispin SM, Barnett KC. Dystrophy, degeneration and infiltration of the canine cornea. J Small Anim Pract 1983;24:63-83.
- Curtis R, Barnett KC. Primary lens luxation in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1980;21:657-668.
- Davidson MG et al. Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation: a Study of Surgical Results in 182 Dogs. Progr Vet Comp Ophthalmol 1991;1(4):233-238.
- de Schaepdrijver L, Simoens P, Lauwers H. Morphologic study of the retinal microvasculature in the dog. Vet Comp Ophthalmology 1996;6(2):100-109.
- Donovan, A.: The postnatal development of the cat retina. Exp. Eye Res., 5:249, 1966
- Gelatt, K.N. et al.: Animal models for inherited cataracts: A review. Curr. Eye Res., 3(5):765-778, 1984.
- Gelatt, K.N., Henderson, S.F., and Steffen, G.R.: Fluorescein angiography of the normal and diseased ocular fundi of the laboratory dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 169:980-4, 1976.
- Gelatt KN, Peiffer RL, Gwin RM, Gum GG, Williams LW. Clinical manifestations of inherited glaucoma in the beagle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1977;16(12):1135-1142. (Open Access)
- Gum, G.C., et al.: Maturation of the retina of the canine neonate as determined by electroretinography and histology. Am. J. Vet. Res., 45:1166-71, 1984.
- Gwin, R.M., Lerner, I., Warren, K., and Gum, G.: Decrease in canine corneal endothelial cell density and corneal thickness as a function of age. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 22:267, 1982. (Open Access)
- Hayes, K.C., Nielson, S.W., and Eaton, H.D.: Pathogenesis of the optic nerve lesion in vitamin A deficient calves. Arch. Ophthalmol., 80:777-87, 1968. (Open Access)
- Johnston, M.C., et al.: Origins of avian ocular and periocular tissues. Exp. Eye Res., 29:27-43. 1979.
- Jubb, K.V., Saunders, L.Z., and Coates, H.V.: The intraocular lesions of canine distemper. J. Comp. Pathol., 67:21, 1957.
- Kern TJ. Orbital neoplasia in 23 dogs. JAVMA 1985;186(5):489-491.
- Martin, C.L., and Chambreau, T.: Cataract production in experimentally orphaned puppies fed a commercial replacement for bitch's milk. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc., 18:115, 1982.
- Martin, C.L.: Development of pectinate ligament structure of the dog: Study by scanning electron microscopy. Am. J. Vet. Res., 35:1433, 1974.
- Martin, C.L.: Gonioscopy and anatomical correlations of the drainage angle of the dog. J. Small Anim. Prac., 10:171, 1969.
- Martin, C.L.: Scanning electron microscopic examination of selected canine iridocorneal angle abnormalities. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc., 11:300, 1975.
- Martin, C.L.: Slit lamp examination of the normal canine anterior ocular segment. Part I: Introduction and technique. J. Small Anim. Pract., 10:143, 1969.
- Martin, C.L.: Slit lamp examination of the normal canine anterior ocular segment. Part II: Description. J. Small Anim. Pract., 10:151, 1969.
- Martin, C.L.: Slit lamp examination of the normal canine anterior ocular segment. Part III: Description and summary. J. Small Anim. Pract. 10:163, 1969.
- Martin, C.L.: The normal canine iridocorneal angle as viewed with the scanning electron microscope. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc., 11:180-4, 1975.
- Miller PE, Pickett JP. Comparison of the human and canine Schiotz tonometry conversion tables in clinically normal dogs. JAVMA 1992;201(7):1021-1025.
- Miller PE, Pickett JP. Comparison of the human and canine Schiotz tonometry conversion tables in clinically normal cats. JAVMA 1992;201(7):1017-1020.
- Miller PE, Murphy CJ. Vision in dogs. JAVMA 1995;207(12):1623-1634.
- Millichamp NJ, Dziezyc J.: Cataract phacofragmentation in horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2000;3(2- 3):157-164.
- Moore CP, Wilsman NJ, Nordheim EV, Majors LJ, Collier LL. Density and distribution of canine conjunctival goblet cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1987;28:1925-1932. (Open Access)
- Murphy, C.J., and Howland, H.C.: The optics of comparative ophthalmoscopy. Vision Res., 27:599, 1987.
- Mutti DO, Zadnik K, Murphy CJ.: Naturally occurring vitreous chamber-based myopia in the Labrador retriever. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Jun;40(7):1577-84. (Open Access)
- Narfstrom, K.: Progressive retinal atrophy in the Abyssinian cat: Clinical characteristics. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 26:193, 1985. (Open Access)
- Peiffer, R.L., Jr., Gelatt, K.N., and Gum, G.C.: Determination of facility of outflow in the dog comparing in vivo and in vitro tonographic and constant pressure perfusion techniques. Am. J. Vet. Res., 37:1473, 1976.
- Peiffer RL, Wilcock BP. The Pathogenesis and Significance of Pre-iridal Fibrovascular membrane in Domestic Animals. Vet Pathol 1990;27:41-45.
- Percy, D.H., Scott, F.W., and Albert, D.M.: Retinal dysplasia due to feline panleukopenia virus infection. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 167:935-7, 1975.
- Priester, W.A.: Congenital ocular defects in cattle, horses, cats, and dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 160:1504-1511, 1972.
- Ramsey DT, Hauptman JG, Petersen-Jones SM.: Corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and optical corneal diameter in Rocky Mountain Horses with cornea globosa or clinically normal corneas. Am J Vet Res. 1999 Oct; 60 (10):1317-21.
- Riis RC, Sheffy BE, Loew E, Kern TJ, Smith JS. Vitamin E deficiency retinopathy in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1981;42:74-86.
- Roberts, S.R., and Dellaporta, A., and Winter, F.C.: The collie ectasia syndrome. Pathology of the eyes of young and adult dogs. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 62:728, 1966.
- Roberts, S.R., Dellaporta, A., and Winter, F.C.: The collie ectasia syndrome. Pathologic alterations of the eyes of pups one to fourteen days of age. Am. J. Ophthalmol., 61:1458, 1966.
- Roberts, S.R.: The Collie eye anomaly. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 155:859-66, 1969.
- Rodriguez-Peralta L.: The blood-aqueous barrier in five species. Am J Ophthalmol. 1975 Oct;80(4):713-25.
- Sandberg, M.A. et al.: Full field electroretinograms in miniature poodles with progressive rod-cone degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 27:1179, 1986. (Open Access)
- Schmidt, S.Y., Berson, E.L., and Hayes, K.C.: Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. I. Taurine deficiency. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 15:47, 1976. (Open Access)
- Schmidt, S.Y., et al.: Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. III. Taurine deficiency and ERG amplitudes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 16:673, 1977. (Open Access)
- Sharpnack, et al.: Vascular pathways of the anterior segment of the canine eye. Am. J. Vet. Res., 45(7):1287-1294, 1984.
- Shatz, C.J., and Levay, S.: Siamese cat: Altered connections of visual cortex. Science, 204:328, 1979.
- Shively, J.N., and Epling, G.: Fine structure of the canine eye: cornea. Am. J. Vet. Res., 31:713, 1970.
- Shively, J.N., and Epling, G.P.: Fine structure of the canine eye: Iris. Am. J. Vet. Res., 30:13-25, 1969.
- Shively, J.N., Epling, G.P., and Jensen, R.: Fine structure of the postnatal development of the canine retina. Am. J. Vet. Res., 32:383, 1971.
- Shively, J.N., Epling, G.P., and Jenson, R.: Fine structure of the canine eye: Retina. Am. J. Vet. Res., 31:1339, 1970.
- Stryer, L. The molecules of visual excitation. Sci. American, 257(1), 42-50, 1987. DH Hill T1 .S5
- Tripathi, R.C., and Tripathi, B.J.: The mechanisms of aqueous outflow in primates, lower mammals and birds. A comparative study. Exp. Eye Res., 17:393-4, 1973.
- Tripathi, R.C.: Ultrastructure of the exit pathway of the aqueous in lower mammals. Exp. Eye Res., 12:311, 1971.
- Van Buskirk, E.M.: The canine eye: The vessels of aqueous drainage. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 18:223, 1979. (Open Access)
- Whiteley, H.E., et al.: Ocular lesions of bovine malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Pathol., 22:219, 1985. (Open Access)
- Wilcock, B.P., and Peiffer, R.L.: Morphology and behavior of primary ocular melanomas in 91 dogs. Vet. Pathol., 23:418, 1986. (Open Access)
- Wilcock, B.P., and Peiffer, R.L.: The pathology of lens-induced uveitis in dogs. Vet. Pathol., 24:549, 1987. (Open Access)
- Witzel, D.A., et al.: Congenital stationary night blindness: An animal model. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 17:788-796, 1978. (Open Access)
- Wong, et al.: Vasculature of cat eye. Arch. Ophthalmol., 72:351-358, 1964.
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Web page updated January 17, 2014.