Bibliography for the Collection


Brown, Minnie Miller, Jewel G Fessendon, and Culpepper Paul Marsh. A Study of North Carolina Negro Homemakers. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, 1964.

This study of the African American Home Demonstration program in North Carolina just prior to integration, is a compilation of statistics on members of Home Demonstration clubs, which are compared to numbers on nonmembers. The data is sampled from six counties. It indicates where members lived, and includes information on education levels, income and expenses, and level of participation in the clubs.

Clark, James W. Clover All Over: North Carolina 4-H in Action. Raleigh, NC: Office of 4-H and Youth, North Carolina State University, 1984.

Clark has written a detailed history of 4-H in North Carolina, including information on early extension and Home Demonstration work for both white and African American clubs. The book covers the development and evolution of the clubs, early leaders in extension and Home Demonstration, and statistics on the growth of 4-H in the state.

Haller, Cynthia. Revaluing Women's Work: Report Writing in the North Carolina Canning Clubs, 1912–1916. Technical Communication Quarterly 6 (1997) pp.281-292.

Haller's article examines report writing in the early years of North Carolina Home Demonstration work. While looking specifically at the detailed records kept by Home Demonstration at the urging of Jane Simpson McKimmon, the author also examines the program's early history. The article begins with a brief description of life for the average agrarian housewife and Progressive Era attempts to improve farm life, such as through the girls Canning Clubs. Of particular interest is the author's description of McKimmon's emphasis on detailed record keeping.

Harrill, L. R. Images of 4-H. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University Print Shop, 1966.

Gathered in this book is a collection of writings by L. R. Harrill throughout his career in 4-H. Topics covered vary widely from the importance of wildlife conservation and the Wildlife Conservation Conference to the meaning of the 4-H flag. These excerpts are grouped into several short chapters given such titles as "Leadership," "Inspiration," and "A Tribute to Youth." While the book does not contain much historical information on 4-H in North Carolina, it does provide an interesting insight into Harrill's thoughts on the program.

Harrill, L. R. Memories of 4-H. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University Print Shop, 1967.

This book is a first person account by the man who led 4-H in North Carolina for four decades. It contains a description of projects, 4-H Club Week, camps, demonstrations, and other activities. Most useful is the Appendix, which includes a chronology of important events in North Carolina 4-H history and a list when each county began its 4-H program.

Jones, Lu Ann. Mama Learned Us to Work: Farm Women in the New South. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Jones uses over 200 oral histories, taken from men and women who farmed in the early and mid twentieth century, to challenge the traditional view of farming in the rural South, including North Carolina. She centers her narrative on work done by white and black women on farms and looks at a wide spectrum of Southern farmers, including those who owned their land and those who sharecropped. The book emphasizes women's economic role, putting food on the table as well as working in the fields, and it covers rural reforms including Home Demonstration.

McKimmon, Jane Simpson. When We're Green We Grow. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1945.

McKimmon's book describes mainly the early years of the Home Demonstration program for white women in North Carolina, often using the experiences of specific Home Demonstration agents or club members. The one chapter devoted to African American Home Demonstration work is useful in providing names of early African American Home Demonstration agents.

Smith, Margaret Supplee, and Emily Herring Wilson. "Jane Simpson McKimmon." North Carolina Women Making History. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. 250-253.

Smith and Wilson have compiled short biographies on some of the most important women in North Carolina history. The entry on Jane Simpson McKimmon includes her work with Home Demonstration and a short discussion of her private life away from the program. Of particular interest is the discussion of McKimmon's leadership of the North Carolina food conservation program during World War I and her hiring of forty-one African American Home Demonstration agents in 1919 to help with canning and food production.


The 4-H Mirror

The 4-H Mirror was the monthly publication for the African American 4-H Club members in North Carolina. There is one extant copy of this periodical in the NCSU Archives, and it dates from 1939.

Home Demonstration News and Green 'n' Growing, published 1954–1959?

This publication was produced by the North Carolina Federation of Home Demonstration Clubs rather than state Home Demonstration office. The title changed in 1959, and later that same year the last issues were apparently published.

National Boys' and Girls' Club News, National 4-H Club News, and National 4-H News, published 1923–present

First published in 1923, the National Boys' and Girls' Club News was the first national club publication. The title was later changed twice.

Tar Heel Club News and Clover Leaves, published 1920, 1929–1981?

The Tar Heel Club News was first published by North Carolina state 4-H office as a monthly newsletter in 1920. The title was resurrected in 1929 as the annual publication that white club members created during their weeklong 4-H Short Course (later called State 4-H Club Week). In 1949 the name changed to Clover Leaves.

Other 4-H and Home Demonstration Publications

The North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service has also published numerous 4-H and Home Demonstration/Economics pamphlets, flyers, and other publications during its history. Many of these have been bound and are held by the NCSU Libraries. These include Extension Circulars, with call the number of S544.3 .N8 N63. Other titles have the call numbers of S544.3 .N8 N641 (print) and MFM 5035, MFM 5036, MFM 5077 (microfilm).

Additional Secondary Sources

Brown, Emory John, and Patrick Gerald Boyle. 4-H in Urban Areas: A Case Study of 4-H Organization and Programs in Selected Urbanized Areas. Washington, DC: National 4-H Club Foundation, 1964.

Carter, George LaRome, and Robert C Clark. Selected Readings and References in 4-H Club Work. Madison, WI: National Agricultural Extension Center for Advanced Study, University of Wisconsin, 1961.

Erickson, Theodore August, and Anna North Coit. My Sixty Years with Rural Youth. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1956.

Hinshaw, Kenneth. 4-H: A Story—Weaving Together Actual 4-H Experiences, Historical Sketches of Boys' and Girls' 4-H Clubwork, and Chronicles of Important 4-H Events. New York: Orange Judd Publishing, 1935.

McCormick, Virginia E, and Robert W McCormick. A.B. Graham, Country Schoolmaster and Extension Pioneer. Worthington, OH: Cottonwood Publications, c1984.

Neyland, Leedell W., and Esther Glover Fahm. Historically Black Land-Grant Institutions and the Development of Agriculture and Home Economics, 1890–1990. Tallahassee, FL: Florida A&M University Foundation, 1990.

Reck, Franklin Mering. The 4-H Story: a History of 4-H Club Work. Chicago: National Committee on Boys and Girls Club Work, 1951.

Scholl, Jan. Making the Best Better: Sixteen Hundred 4-H Graduate Studies. University Park, PA : Jan Scholl, 2004.

Sims, Anastatia. The Power of Femininity in the New South: Women's Organizations and Politics in North Carolina, 1880–1930. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1997.

Stage, Sarah, and Virginia Bramble Vincenti. Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997.

Strasser, Susan. Never Done: a History of American Housework. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

Wessel, Thomas, and Marilyn Wessel. 4-H: An American Idea 1900–1980. Maryland: National 4-H Council, 1982.

Woman pouring water in a wash tub, preparing to do laundry Hazel Carris of Pitt County at her 4-H exhibit, "Drink Your Way to Health" L. R. Harrill and others launching the U.S.S. Tyrrell on July 10th, 1944 in Wilmington, N.C. L. R. Harrill revealing the plaque placed on an ambulance donated to the United States Army Medical Department in honor of former 4-H club members now serving in the armed forces
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