Lewis Clarke Alphabetized Annotated Bibliography
This annotated bibliography provides the researcher with abstracts of critical literature that discusses the importance of Clarke's work. This bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author last name. The bibliography arranged chronologically is also available.
The 1972 award winning residential designs. 1973. Washington, DC: National Landscape Association. The award exists to encourage improved design and installation. Information about the award winners is published and distributed to members of the National Landscape Association. Award recognizes residential design, whereas the American Association of Nurserymen recognizes commercial installations. Six National Landscape Association awards given in 1972. One of the six (pp. 10—13), Clarke's design for the Nave residence in Pinehurst, N.C., "provides a maximum peaceful, serene, recreational environment without ecological disturbances of the natural landscaping to make the house, its garden, and the surrounding landscaping one harmonious whole. A minimum number of mature Southern pines were cut to site the house and establish a small lawn and planting area. The ecological design of this area makes a pleasant transition into the surround pine woodland. Selected minimum pruning of lower branches of the pines provide distant vistas of attractive gold and water landscape scenes." Judges' comments: "An excellent well balanced design carefully executed. The plant material selected . . . blends well with native materials on the site. Excellent use of ground covers. A very inviting entrance leading one on to the front door." 8 1/2 x 11 planting plan. Six postcard size, black and white photos. One shows the railroad tie walkway as featured in article, "Side yard walks that curve like nature" (1973).
AAN's 16th annual landscape awards: WSJS radio and television stations. 1968. Nursery Business 13 (11): front, 12. This is the magazine for nursery management. American Association of Nurserymen's sixteenth annual landscape awards made as tribute to First Lady "Lady Bird" Johnson for her National Beautification program. Record number of entries received, "130, nearly twice as many as last year. Seventeen awards given and 22 certificates of merit chosen." Page 12 is citation only. Front cover montage includes photo. WSJS Radio and TV Stations' courtyard garden is visible through floor–to–ceiling windows from inside building. An example of visually blending interior and exterior spaces as one.
Ageless architecture through brick beauty: Nash General Hospital. 1972. North Carolina Architect 19 (9/10): 21. Featured inside back cover. Architects and engineers, The Freeman–White Associates; Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke Associates; General contractor, Juno Construction Co. Represents one of earliest associations of LCA with Freeman–White.
Around a pond. 1979. House Beautiful's gardening and outdoor living 40:61. Short paragraph that quotes "famed landscape architect" Lewis Clarke: "I use water where appropriate. It is the only garden construction material that possesses movement, sound, and characteristics of light, reflection, and color. So most of our schemes involve an eternal search to emphasize these qualities." This quote is important to understanding the frequent use of water in LCA designs. Article includes four photos to illustrate the thesis. None attributed. [Clarke has verified that none are his work.]
Artificial environments and landscape architecture. . In Genesis of knowledge: A report on research at the consolidated University of North Carolina, 40—41. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina. Report is undated, but surmise circa 1964 based on mention of William Friday as president of the University of North Carolina system. Also, the NCSU Libraries has listed as 1964(?). This booklet is a series of short paragraph, one photograph reports on approximately 100 different research projects ongoing in the University of North Carolina system. The reports cover all areas of study from the arts to biotech, to agriculture, to engineering. Clarke's "Artificial Environments" report announces studies in "design and use of plant vegetation within artificial environments." He used analysis of Victorian period iron and glass conservatories and extended the idea into closed, sustainable environments for people. The idea was applied to functional design such as Cherry Hill Mall in Haddonfield, New Jersey.
Award of merit: Davie Hall addition, Department of Psychology, University of N.C., Chapel Hill. 1968. North Carolina Architect 15 (2): 14—15. Architect, Holloway–Reeves; Consulting architect, Brian Shawcroft; General contractor, T. A. Loving, Co.; Engineer, Robert E. Lasater; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke Associates. The list of firms that worked on this project has significance. Shawcroft was on faculty of NCSU School of Design; R. E. Lasater and Clarke worked frequently together. Three black–and–white photos showcase architecture with little of landscape showing. One plan view drawing shows building footprint only.
Award of merit: Pinecrest High School. 1971. North Carolina Architect 18 (3/4): 19. Architects, Hayes, Howell & Associates; Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke Associates; General contractor, Robert H. Pinnix. Photograph of interior courtyard garden; one photo of exterior.
Award of merit: Sandhills Community College. 1968. North Carolina Architect 15 (2): 18—19. Architect, Hayes, Howell & Associates; General contractor, H. R. Johnson Construction Co.; Engineers, Gardner–Kline & Associates; Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke Associates. Located in Moore County, N.C. Award given for phase built. Jury comments: "The site plan generated a great deal of interest. The architecture of the single structure tends to an adequate scale of the open spaces with sense of unity." Four black–and–white photos. Two show plantings. One plan view drawing shows three–building group with sidewalks and interspersed gardens.
Award of merit: Southern Pines Savings & Loan. 1962. Southern Architect 9 (6): 8—9.Architect, Hayes, Howell & Associates; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke. Credit is given to Clarke in 1962 because Lewis Clarke Associates was not yet formalized. The focal point of the Savings & Loan design is the interior garden and pool. Innovation is an exterior solar screen. The author feels the building, garden, and interior designs have a progressive association but at the same time harmonize "with the surrounding conservative community." Three excellent black–and–white photos; two are views of garden. A plan view drawing of building interior shows some details on garden plan. Clarke and Hayes, Howell had a long relationship working on similar projects.
Award of merit: Waterside residence, State Senator and Mrs. George Wood, Camden, North Carolina. 1972. North Carolina Architect 19 (3/4): 18—19. Architect, Hayes, Howell & Associates; General contractor, Case and Hobbs; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke Associates. "The entire home lends itself to gracious indoor–outdoor living." Three photos include interior courtyard garden, and plan view of planting plan.
The Bank of Wilmington drive–in branch. 1962. Southern Architect 9 (6): 13. Architect, Leslie Boney; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke (not listed). One of the first drive–through bank branches. This one offered both walk–in and drive–through with "ample parking for 15 cars . . . evergreen shrubs have been planted to define the area of bank facilities and to complement the building." Three black–and–white photos of building with no views of plantings. Plan view drawing of building only.
Big shopping center planned here. [1970?] [source not known]. Announcement (newspaper article) of Crabtree Plaza shopping center to be built. General contractor, Davidson and Jones; Architects, Construction Engineers Inc. of Chapel Hill; Consulting architects, Lathrop Douglas, New York; Consulting mechanical engineers, Sidney Barbanel, Long Island, N.Y.; Traffic and parking consultants, Kimley and Horn, Raleigh; and Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke and Associates, Raleigh. Includes black–and–white photo of Mayor Travis Tomlinson, developers Seby Jones, Don Schaaf, and Sam Longiotti looking at model of Crabtree Plaza. As proposed was 1400 feet long.
Biographical information. 1963. Technical Bulletin (Producers Council) 104 (June): 38. "Lewis Clarke, ASLA, in addition to running his own practice, has been a member of the faculty of the School of Design, N.C. State College, since 1952. He is also a visiting critic at many universities. His practice in landscape architecture over the past ten years includes eight completed shopping mall projects. His work and articles have been widely published and he has been the recipient of numerous professional and academic awards. In 1962 he received a national award from the America Association of Nurserymen for his work on Cherry Hill Shopping Center and, also in 1962, First Honor Award in the Outdoor Living Awards competition. Dr. [sic] Clarke studied architecture and landscape architecture in England and landscape architecture at Harvard University. Member ASLA, BILA, RIBA." Six of the malls are listed: Northway Mall, Pittsburgh, Pa.; North Star Mall, San Antonio, Tex.; The Mall, Louisville, Ky.; Charlottetown Mall, Charlotte, N.C.; Cherry Hill Shopping Center, Cherry Hill, N.J.
Building for industry: Whitaker Park, R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 1963. Southern Architect 10 (2): 6—7. Architects, A. G. Odell, Jr. & Associates. Lewis Clarke Associates (LCA) not listed as landscape architects, but they designed planting plan, fountains, and exterior planting boxes, parking. Four black–and–white photos showing outside profile of building front at night, entrance portico, interior. Plan view shows building footprint, parking and drives, planting boxes, and fountain. The author calls the building's design modern functionalism. LCA worked frequently with A. G. Odell, Jr.
Burns, Robert Paschal. 2005. Pavilion will be an elegant enhancement to N.C. State's campus. In Letters to the editor. News and Observer (Raleigh, NC). March 9. Answer to Point of View article written by Clarke on 5 March 2005, "N.C. State's hard–won open space." Points out that Clarke had not been with university for almost 40 years and that planning concepts have changed in that time. Based on a master plan calling for gathering places, Catalano's roof, which Burns characterizes as a "pavilion," fits the criteria. Burns corrects Clarke's use of the term "hyperbola" to describe the roof and suggests instead that the design is a "hyperbolic paraboloid," If built, the pavilion would "enhance the beautiful open space and . . . bring international recognition to the university." The roof was not built because the students and faculty led objections through channels of complaint. Catalano withdrew a monetary gift rumored to be $1 million.
Charlotte creates a sister–city fountain plaza. 1972. Southern Living 7 (12): 132. Three black–and–white photos of fountain and corner plaza dedicated to Arequipa, Peru, the sister city of Charlotte, N.C. Design of fountain was inspired by an extinct volcano in Arequipa. The plaza was located in front of the Charlotte–Mecklenburg Public Library for about 15 years until the 1990s renovations to the library necessitated removal of the fountain and the cast panels that formed the backdrop for bench seating (shown in photos). The panels are now being stored by Charlotte Parks and Recreation. The article explains how the fountain's design considered how the volcano worked: "With timed sequence of water and lighting, the water erupts in the taller cone–shaped pool, cascades into a lower pool which bubbles with fountain jets and finally flows—like lava—through troughs. The water is recirculated and the sequence is repeated." This project won several awards. Clarke says it was a highly successful design because, in addition to library patrons and pedestrians, even vagrants found it inviting.
Charlotte Observer. 1959. Taxpayers will begin reaping benefits. October 28:sec. C. A six article spread about Charlottetown Mall opening: "Experts Expect Bill of $100,000 Annually," "Giant Mall Ultra–Modern in Design," "Firm puts $2,600,000 in Center," "Shoppers' Tropical Paradise." One article claims, "It's a great new idea in shopping which is certain to catch hold like wildfire." Includes black–and–white photos of merchandise, and one with cut line, "Sarong–clad Joyce Moore tries out sheltering limbs of palm in Charlottetown Mall's Cascading Garden. She'll be passing out palms (tree that is) to shoppers today."
Cherry Hill. 1962. Shopping Center Age, January:41—60. This article is a case history of an early enclosed shopping center and gives an in–depth version of how Cherry Hill Mall in Haddenfield, New Jersey, was developed. Article starts with photo of Lewis Clarke Associates design for fountain and interior planting. Enclosed malls were a new concept in 1962. Cherry Hill claims to be first, but more correct order may be Baltimore, Charlottetown, San Antonio, and then Cherry Hill based on history of Community Research and Development, Inc. (Rouse Company) projects. In 1962, developers are still justifying the design and defining what goes into the enclosed space. Victor Gruen, architect, designed the mall in an L–shape. Landscape architect Lewis Clarke placed a summerhouse at the intersection of the two legs of the L "with seats for 20 people within sight of a spectacular tropical garden with a fountain that geysers a 30–foot jet of water at five minute intervals." The article describes how they achieved the "balmy" feeling for the plants but kept the environment comfortable for people. Most of article is about the architecture and engineering aspects. Additional discussion about landing anchor tenants and leasing the store spaces.
Cherry Hill: Retailings' [sic] lush greenhouse. 1963. Reprinted from Greater Philadelphia: The Magazine for Executives. April. A lengthy article about the rise of the regional malls as agoras to bedroom communities. "Cherry Hill Mall is a shopping center asking to be a city, a modern agora, a dynamic manifestation of the early Greek polis. But since the advent of suburbia, every press agent for every conglomeration of more than half a dozen retail outlets that happened to lease space within eyeball distance of one another has claimed community integrality for his particular 'shopping center.' It was only natural for the lack of a marketplace was the recognized gap in the bedroom communities that sprang up with the postwar exodus from the city. No core. No agora. Cherry Hill Mall changed everything." This is a person–size look at the mall, where author senses some of the nuances like "the leisureliness . . . the tinkling waterfalls." Gives design details such as "a huge bi–level fountain that spouts a changing pattern of gushing waters . . . surrounded by dense islands of foliage (14,000 real plants)." A good article from which to depart in a discussion of what makes an environment conducive to pedestrian traffic and answers the question, do we really notice?
Clark, Roger, ed. 2007. School of Design: The Kamphoefner years, 1948–1973. Raleigh: College of Design. Collection of anecdotes and photographs about the School of Design, with Clarke mentioned on pp. 14, 22, 81, 93, 118, 119, and 128. Photograph of 1967—68 faculty showing Clarke seated with 19 other members of faculty. An anecdote about an English MG, which may or may not have been Clarke's. Anecdote mentioning Clarke's "riveting class in history of landscape garden design." Foldout timeline of all faculty affiliations. Clarke listed as 1952—53, instructor; 1953—56, visiting assistant professor; 1956—61, visiting associate professor; and 1961—68, professor. Anecdote mentioning Clarke's "wonderful sensitivity for landscape design." Black–and–white casual portrait photo. Anecdote mentioning Clarke's catch phrase, "It is time to present."
Clarke, Lewis. 1944-2006. Lewis Clarke Collection. Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries. MC 00175. A collection of personal papers of Clarke and the company records of his firm, Lewis Clarke Associates, documenting his professional work and time as an NCSU School of Design faculty member. The bulk of the collection documents the firm’s projects, which include residences, primary and secondary schools, community colleges, university campuses, regional hospitals, shopping centers, residential resort projects, and pedestrian malls. The collection is arranged into eight series: project files, drawings, professional papers, faculty papers, personal papers, office files, project booklets, and photographic materials. An online guide describes the collection in more detail.
Clarke, Lewis. 1957. Planning southeastern gardens (with an apology to California). Progressive Architecture 38 (10): 108—13. A seminal article; a call for developing a southern design as distinctive as the Bay Region style. Discusses history of southern houses as plantations and landscapes that weren't planned for beauty but for utilitarian reasons. What changed was the utilitarian need. Comparisons made between land forms and plantings available in Bay Region versus Southeast. Includes a comparison chart and two schematic garden drawings. One illustrates Bay Region; the other illustrates open plan for Southeast. Discusses what makes California gardens "look" like California gardens and what characteristics southeastern gardens should have that will make them distinctive in style.
Clarke, Lewis. 1959. Teaching people to see—and understand. Landscape Architecture 50 (2): 107—8. A seminal article that calls for designers to pay attention to all five of the senses. "If the field is only that of a visual experience, then its practice can result only in the imitation of previous styles, misplaced romanticism, the planarization of form, a debasement of pure ornament, sentimental whims and fancies, and the reliance on sensationalisms and 'the gimmick.'" Explains designing in the fourth dimension to "create atmosphere within a space and with space." Highly populated and developed areas are especially challenging "to members of the environmental design field." Legacy should be landscape "that's ecologically balanced . . . useful . . . an environment understood and enjoyed through all five senses." This article contains primary talking points for beginning designers. Includes picture of Clarke and short biography.
Clarke, Lewis. 1960. Edwin Gilbert Thurlow papers, circa 1930—1974. Special Collections, Design Library, North Carolina State University. A series of letters exchanged between Thurlow and Clarke. Mostly concerns visiting professors. Some lesson plans for courses.
Clarke, Lewis. 1961. Current work: A residential garden in Reidsville, N.C. Journal of the Institute of Landscape Architects (Great Britain) 56 (11): 10—12. Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Mace residence, newly built. Architects, Schnedle and Schnedle; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke (A). Property located on golf course. Shows retaining woodland character of lot while "opening small glades," a typical Clarke option. Rear deck "provides direct access outdoor[s] from living and dining areas without disturbing existing grades or pine trees." Two separate parking areas—one for guests on front of house, second service area near car garage. Includes a circular outdoor eating area that overlooks golf course. Four black–and–white photos show different views to rear deck, "floating" stair treads, view of front garden surround by Hetzi juniper hedge. Plan is significant for creating privacy when backyard faces a public space like a golf course. Precursor to plans later used on planned recreation/residential communities.
Clarke, Lewis. 1961. Inside the shopping center. Landscape Architecture 52 (1): 12—16.This article is about Charlottetown Mall, developed by Community Research and Development, Inc. (The Rouse Company) out of Baltimore and the first enclosed mall in the Southeast (Charlotte, N.C.). The idea for an enclosed shopping center is eighteenth century, but the addition of plant materials and landscaping is twentieth century. Architect for Charlottetown Mall was A. G. Odell, Jr. and Associates. Clarke credits developers with adding plants to the shopping environment. Design–wise, conservatories are different from enclosed malls, which don't have natural light or humidity. Article continues with broad outline of how to overcome problems with light and moisture requirements of the plants. Includes plan view of Charlottetown Mall, a sketch, photographs, and list of plant materials that succeeded as well as those that failed. Charlottetown Mall and this article are important, in that they established Clarke's reputation for large scale successful indoor plantings in the area of the country where he practiced most and paired him with the Rouse Company for subsequent malls like Cherry Hill. Biography and photo of Clarke on page two.
Clarke, Lewis. 1961. Landscape detail by Lewis Clarke [xerographic copy]. Henry L. Kamphoefner papers. Special Collections Research Center, D. H. Hill Jr. Library, North Carolina State University. MC 198, Flat Folder 59. Drawing of garden plan for Kamphoefner's residence.
Clarke, Lewis. 1962. Current work: A restaurant garden in Raleigh, N.C. Journal of the Institute of Landscape Architects (Great Britain) 57 (2): 10. Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke (A); Building architect, Leif Valand; Landscape contractor, Clarence Steppe of Wayside Gardens. Balentine's Restaurant Garden in Cameron Village Shopping Center, Raleigh, N.C. Introduced use of feather rock into area. Also, had to use crane to lower plant material into the structural well formed by three–story building and two–story parking deck. Use of large plant materials unique at time. Water feature includes small waterfall with fountain and pool.
[Clarke, Lewis]. 1962. Department of Landscape Architecture. Southern Architect 9 (2): 8—9. Issue is an overview of the North Carolina State College School of Design. Section on landscape architecture written by Clarke but unattributed. Two brief, but important, paragraphs and five photos of sample student work (none attributed). Clarke gives a definition of landscape architecture: "the design of outdoor space for the benefit, protection, use, and enjoyment of people." This is an interesting definition, because it doesn't mention design of interior gardens to come. Issues a challenge to students to design landscapes "with architectural character, scale and size, such as those associated with the city." Calls for designs to be indigenous and ecological. These two terms are themes in Clarke's lectures. Last paragraph describes larger theme of the school's program as it relates to field of landscape architecture.
Clarke, Lewis.  1966. Terre [sic] Descratum. In Perception and environment: Foundations of urban design, ed. Robert E. Stipe, 74—76, 90—94. Chapel Hill, N.C.: UNC—Chapel Hill Institute of Government. Proceedings of a 1962 seminar on Urban Design; printed in 1966. Contains all nine papers presented at seminar as well as transcript of some of the discussion held by the "forty–plus participants—a group consisting primarily of city planners, architects and landscape architects." Editor felt papers presented at 1962 seminar "will make a significant contribution to the body of thought and effort that is rapidly developing around this subject [urban design]." Example of papers: Joe Cox on "The City as Art," George S. Welsh on "The Perception of Our Urban Environment," and Karl Otto Schmid on "A Philosophy of Urban Design." Clarke's "Terre [sic] Descratum" is short compared to the others; unlike the others, he paints a picture of uncontrolled urban sprawl. "To perceive one must understand through all of the five senses of actual perception: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch." Appealing to all five senses, landscape architects create "atmosphere," which is not ornamentation but created with utility. The utility is for people's relief from the buildings, advertising, cars, highways, parking meters —"an entire host of congestive appliances zoned into the landscape by urban planners. Such environments are walled by buildings where the only connection with the sky are their eye level footings which, having merchandising spaces below, are decorated with such provocative signs as 'Eat,' 'Spend,' or 'Move Faster.'" Clarke claims that it is not surprising "that people want to move away from environments of diurnal activity and nocturnal loneliness" to one–acre lots in "God's own country." This leads to urban sprawl or "terra descratum." More types of people should be involved in the concept and planning stages. Includes biographical paragraphs.
Clarke, Lewis. 1963. A merchandising aid: Landscape architecture—how it creates an enjoyable shopping atmosphere. Technical Bulletin (Producers Council) 104 (June): 38—41. Main Street has been replaced by enclosed malls where ten percent of space is allocated for public use. This is the "mall," which produces no income but enhances environment where income is produced. Ten percent is what must be designed by landscape architect, mindful that "the mall" sets the shopper at ease, makes the trip an adventure, and is intended to be a weekly experience. Interior amenities are known. Exterior entrances need attention, because shopping centers are usually big boxes with parking lots. "The design should be aligned with stage design to dramatize and symbolize an integration of indoor and outdoors, and not merely to copy the outdoors inside. Thus a new environment without real historical precedent is created." Conclusion: Evident that changing role of shopping center has potential "quite unrealized in today's society." Large span roof structures and "utilization of good environmental landscape design, integrated with new technological progress can, if guided with sound financial pioneering leadership, make a tremendous contribution to sociological advancement, and enrich the lives of many people." Seven black–and–white photos selected from Northway Mall, Pittsburgh, Pa.; North Star Mall, San Antonio, Tex.; The Mall, Louisville, Ky.; Charlottetown Mall, Charlotte, N.C.; Cherry Hill Shopping Center, Cherry Hill, N.J.
Clarke, Lewis.  1964. Theatre and the new main street. In Theatre and Main Street, ed. Donald M. Gooch, 102—7. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, College of Architecture and Design. Remarks of 26 participants delivered at "Theatre and Main Street," a conference which took place in Ann Arbor, Michigan, March 21 and 22, 1963. Broad in scope, the conference sought theatre's place socially, environmentally, and economically. Clarke's remarks addressed to a subpanel titled, "Theatre as Environment." Asks the question, why has the theatre become divorced from the people? Casts everyday street scenes as backdrops for dramas, but posits that as the Haymarket style of dramas has disappeared so has Main Street. Where have both gone? Enclosed shopping centers are suggested in what may be one of the first written remarks to say so. Includes six of the better black–and–white photos of Cherry Hill Mall interior.
Clarke, Lewis. 1967. Green fingers of Raleigh: Oasis in a city. Raleigh Times. January 7. Streams and gullies encircle 1,800 acres of land. Full–page article written while Clarke was professor at NCSU. Describes how the creeks and streams in Raleigh are like green fingers extended from a "wrist" located under the bridge on Highway 1 North at the old Farmer's Market. Praises some developers for building in consideration of what we now call greenways, and laments the disappearance or pollution of others. A call for a green–finger plan that would interconnect all the spaces, fund the Parks Department, and provide inducements to developers who preserve the streams and their surrounding [ecosystems]. "Then perhaps future generations can say that Raleigh citizens of the Sixties thought wisely and acted intelligently to preserve the beauty and productivity of these Capital City Green Fingers so necessary to proper flood control and to man's use of the land." Includes drawing of all the streams overlaid on map of major Raleigh streets. Three black–and–white photos of existing streams. This plan pre–dates Bill Flournoy's greenways plan. Clarke says he gave the idea to Flournoy as a graduate thesis topic. Flournoy is considered the "father" of the greenways of Raleigh. Clarke should be considered the "grandfather."
Clarke, Lewis. 1971. The style makers speak: A local style. In Time Life encyclopedia of gardening, ed. James Underwood, 92—93. Alexandria, Virginia: Time Life Books. Editor writes, "Every era creates its style and every style reflects its era. Modern landscape design, mirroring the economics and the mood of its time, rejects ostentation in favor of simplicity, and formality in favor of fitness and function. . . . The American Style these men [Church, Clarke, Guy Green, and Robert Royston] shaped has been influenced by the Japanese in the Northwest and West, by the Spanish in the Southwest: but everywhere it displays a sense of place. In the hands of such style makers of today as Guy Greene, Lewis Clarke, and Robert Royston, who describe their designs on the following pages, the results are as different as the Appalachians and the Arizona desert. Yet each one, true to basic principles established in the gardens of Church, celebrates the natural beauty of the American countryside." Under the heading "Ecological realism," Clarke writes, "The design for Louisiana is not the design for New Hampshire. On the East Coast a concrete patio is not put in front of the living room because it would reflect summer heat; around the San Francisco Bay region the patio would be needed for that very reason. We look for ways in which we can make people more aware of the region in which they live or work. I would like them to say, after we're gone, that nobody was here, that only God did this. I try to harmonize and contrast the varying elements that the five senses perceive so that the result seems to have existed all the time, and to achieve that I use water where appropriate. It is the only garden construction material that possesses movement, sound and great characteristics of lighting reflection and color. So most of our schemes involve an eternal search to emphasize these qualities of water." Color picture and caption: "From a N.C. terrace bordered with dahlias, a brick walk wends through native pines and dogwoods to one of a series of pools that Lewis Clarke calls 'rondos.' He considers water a universal element in diverse landscapes." Additional color picture with caption: "A tiny waterfall punctuates a rock–bordered stream that, on its course toward Clarke's rondos, flows past tall loblolly pines and pampas grass (left), azaleas (center) and liriope (right, background), all indigenous to the Piedmont region. The cypress–sided cabin serves as a woodland retreat for the owner." The owner was J. W. "Willie" York of Raleigh.
[Clarke, Lewis]. 1973. An auto–oriented plan for a home landscape. Southern Living 8 (7): 104. Residence of Mr. and Mrs. E. G. Dill, Pinehurst, N.C. A design that addressed the problem of how to accommodate guests' automobiles and the new problem of how to incorporate parking space and drive into a residential landscape. Three black–and–white photos show features such as six–foot–wide brick–on–sand walkway and a crape myrtle trimmed in a multi–trunk tree form. The walk, writes Clarke (who is not attributed but did write the article), "has a good beginning and end."
Clarke, Lewis. 2005. N.C. State's hard–won open space. In Point of view. News and Observer (Raleigh, NC). March 5. At issue was a proposal to build a replica of Eduardo Catalano's 1950s roof on North Carolina State University's Court of North Carolina, one of the last open spaces on what has become known as the "historic campus." Clarke vehemently opposed disturbing the site, which was "consciously created and preserved by many people during the past 50 years." Clarke calls the roof a "hyperbola," a shape not complementary to the site. The hill on which the structure would be located would "do a grave disservice to such an elegant roof form." The roof was not built because students objected through their channels of complaint and demonstration. Catalano withdrew a rumored $1 million gift to the College of Design.
Clarke, Lewis. 2006. A new look. In Letters to the editor. News and Observer (Raleigh, NC). May 28. A letter to the editor about the design for a new chancellor's residence to be located on Centennial Campus. The style being proposed by Dean Malacha was Palladian. Clarke called for a competition to design a more 21st century residence and grounds.
Classroom building for Central Piedmont Community College, Charlotte, N.C. 1969. North Carolina Architect 16 (2): 6—7. Architects, J. N. Pease Associates; General contractor, J. L. Coe Construction Co.; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke, Raleigh, N.C. The jury said about the site plan that the landscape "gives promise of an ultimate development, wherein upon the building will play an important role in the organization of an effective 'yard' in the new campus." Three black–and–white photos: wide sidewalk to main entrance of building; interior yard formed by new building showing seating, planting bed, sculpture; floor plan of building and overall site plan.
Clay, Grady. 1962. Outside The Mall is mistake, but inside is a real wonderland. Courier–Journal (Louisville, KY). March 25, morning edition. A well–known critic, Clay describes The Mall as a "rather hurriedly put–together factory" but "inside it is as superbly inviting as a domesticated World's Fair . . . closest approach to a shopper's dream." The planting is unusual. Designed by Lewis Clarke, landscape architect of Raleigh, N.C., plants were bought in Florida, and installed by Mrs. O'Donnel Pascault [sister of the Rouse brothers]. There's a waterfall "emerging in a swirl from lightweight lava rock (several tons shipped in from California); and two sets of automatically controlled fountains, each producing a rhythm of jets, spray and fluttering under controlled lights. (The sound of water above the noise of human voices is always arresting and magnetic.) Without the jungle–like concentrations of designed plants, the major mall and its two courts would be overly mechanistic and cluttered."
Costello, Mrs. Edward D. 1975. Few answers on hospital. In Opinions of our readers. Raleigh Times. August 23. Mrs. Costello found officials of Rex Hospital did not come prepared to discuss the proposed move of Rex from St. Mary's to a site off Glenwood Avenue. But she did "enjoy Mr. Lewis Clark's [sic] slides of the site and that he at least tried to give some honest answers, and when he didn't know, had the decency to say so. I'm glad he enjoys riding his bicycle along Ridge Rd."
Design for a better outdoors indoors. 1962. Architectural Record 131 (6): 175—79. Critique of Cherry Hill Mall. Victor Gruen says that in order to make people feel that they are outdoors, provide "psychological as well as visual contrasts . . . from indoor shops." Lewis J. Clarke (1962) listed as landscape architect. Statistics about Cherry Hill Mall: two department stores, a supermarket, 75 shops on 1370–foot–long concourse in L–shape, "which terminates in three courts," the largest of which is shown in black–and–white photo of Cherry Court, 110 x 172 feet with skylights 46 feet above floor. Spread includes plan view and aerial view; eight black–and–white photos of Strawbridge and Clothier entrance, interior and exterior; interior entrances to restaurant, supermarket, and kiosks.
Durham (NC) Morning Herald. 1955. Granville begins development drive. May 20. Granville County launches public sale of certificates to raise money for "Hibernia," a 240–acre site on Kerr Reservoir [Lake]. Army Corps of Engineers provided land. North Carolina State University School of Design provided plan. Estimated cost: $250,000. Clarke, along with Gil Thurlow and Henry Kamphoefner, guided students through design and model building. Best proposal was selected as master plan. Then each student was assigned a certain area to work on and to make drawings and models. Plan designed for three stages of construction, with first phase consisting of roads and dockage. Area is located at intersection of Little Nutbush and Big Nutbush Creeks, 2.3 miles northeast of Townsville.
Durham (NC) Sun. 1955. Public meet scheduled. May 18. Scale model of Hibernia to be exhibited and State students will present design. "The work has been done through agreement with Granville Recreation Commission. The job done by students is estimated to have $10,000 value."
Eckbo, Garrett. 1964. Buildings in groups. In Urban landscape design, 60—61. New York: McGraw–Hill. Cherry Hill Mall Shopping Center, Haddonfield, New Jersey, featured in chapter, "Buildings in Groups." Seven photographs of interior mall plantings and design. Caption: "All shops open on to completely enclosed public spaces . . . The landscape architect had to design a completely new atmosphere, using customary outside materials inside. . . . Design within a completely controlled artificial environment is becoming increasingly important in the large shell buildings of contemporary architecture."
Eckbo, Garrett. 1964. Room and Patio. In Urban landscape design, 40—41. New York: McGraw–Hill. "Room and Patio" chapter defines and expands idea of patios as rooms/space. Patios are enclosed spaces with many characteristics from formal to boisterous. Their primary function is to provide space for human contact and socializing activities. They can be large or small; "they are highly developed social spaces of flexible use and content. Patios as extensions of internal space use moveable glass as climate control" for maximum visual and physical movement. On the other hand, living spaces and public areas can be connected "visually by glass walls to landscape spaces which have no other function than to be seen into." To illustrate the latter, Eckbo chose Clarke's Balentine Restaurant Garden in Raleigh, N.C. Five black–and–white photos, cross–section diagram, unlabeled plan view. All attributed.
Eckbo, Garrett. 1969. The landscape we see, 84. New York: McGraw Hill. In Chapter 7, "Architecture," a photo of interior of Cherry Hill Shopping Center with attribution given in the illustration credits.
Enclosed malls. 1962. Shopping Center Age 1 (4): 26, 43. First enclosed, air–conditioned mall in the country was Southdale Shopping Center near Minneapolis. Designed by Victor Gruen, who was also the architect on Cherry Hill. Southdale was not a Lewis Clarke project.
First Federal Savings and Loan. 1963. Southern Architect 10 (10): 9. Architects, Hayes, Howell and Associates; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke, Raleigh. Includes black–and–white photos of exterior of building showing plantings and interior photo of first–floor plantings.
Gooch, Donald M., ed. 1964. Biography for Lewis Clarke. In Theatre and Main Street, 102. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, College of Architecture and Design. "Lewis Clarke, landscape architect. Professor of Landscape Architecture. Teaching landscape design, landscape technology, and History of Design. Dip. Arch. (Leics) 1950, Dip. L.D. (Dunelm) 1951, England. M.L.A. Harvard, 1952. Member American Society of Landscape Architects. Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and British Institute of Landscape Architects. Smith–Mundt Fellowship and Fulbright grant, 1951. Co–prize winner, Carson Pirie Scott Competition. First Honor Award, ASLA, House and Home Outdoor Living Competition, 1962. Four national awards in the American Association of Nurserymen "Plant America" competition, 1962. Panelist, International Design Festival, Aspen, Colorado, 1955; and Urban Design Conference, Harvard, 1963. Lectured and taught at Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, University of Louisiana. Research on design and plant growth in artificial environments. Landscape architect, St. Andrews College; Whitaker Park, Winston–Salem, and enclosed mall shopping centers in Charlotte; Roanoke; Philadelphia; San Antonio; Pittsburgh; Louisville; and Baltimore. Various articles and work published in the United States and the United Kingdom."
Graduate School of Design. 2002. Harvard University Alumni/ae Directory. Cambridge: Harvard University. Biographical information, pp. 46, 291, 326.
Gwynn, Price H. 1962. Planning and building St. Andrews Presbyterian College. In Casebook on campus planning and institutional development: Ten institutions, how they did it, 138—46. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. OE–51003, Circular No. 667. A short article on the founding of the new St. Andrews College campus on 840 acres. A. G. Odell, Jr. and Associates of Charlotte were architects; LCA, planners. "A major proposal was made [and followed] to convert the stream running through the property with its low, swampy area into a lake . . . at a strategic point between two sides of the lake a Chapel was located on the 300–400 foot causeway," which also connected the dorm side of campus with the classroom side of campus. Being the only entrance/exit between the two, there would be "an increased likelihood of seeing familiar faces and gaining a sense of belonging as the whole college found itself mingling on the causeway, passing and repassing the chapel." Some of campus (farms) were farmed during construction and a section of trees was planted for future use. The site plan was accepted and much of the grading and site work was done before bids were accepted on the buildings. This was unusual. Article includes half–page, black–and–white photo of St. Andrews model.
Hall, Jane. 1968. Savings possible in selection of building material. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). June 30:sec. III, 10. A profile piece on Don Masterton, product design professor at N.C. State University. "Palmetto Dunes, a 2,000–acre development at Hilton Head Island in South Carolina, is presently receiving attention from Masterton and Lewis Clarke, professor of landscape architecture. . . . Clarke has done the master plan for the entire development and is serving as design coordinator." Masterton had a variety of product designs; he designed graphics, street lights, bridges, signs "and other needed items" like the amphibian golf cart for use on golf course.
Hammerschlag, Dieter. 1963. A tale of two cities: College Hill and downtown Providence. AIA Journal 40 (5): 43. Overview of renovation progress on Providence, Rhode Island, city plan, which included creation of Westminster Mall, a Lewis Clarke Associates project (not mentioned in text). "The challenge here is to integrate all utility features so necessary in the city completely with the esthetic ones. This calls for new design solutions in handling drainage outlets, hydrants, mail boxes —in fact all street furniture and the adaptation of planting islands and dishes to vaults, conduits, water mains and the countless other things under the surface. Here there is another facet of urban design, minute review and deliberate redesign of the smallest elements in the city, in the scale of the individual on foot. . . . Providence, one of the oldest cities of its size in the country, will be the only one with a pedestrian promenade of this significance." Westminster Mall adjoins the I. M. Pei designed Cathedral Square. Includes black–and–white photo of artist's rendering of Cathedral Square and Westminster Mall.
Harvey, Sheila, ed., from interviews by Ian C. Laurie and Michael Lancaster. 1987. Reflections on Landscape: The lives and work of six British landscape architects. Aldershot, Hants, England: Gower Technical Press; Brookfield, Vt.: Gower. Interview with Brian Hackett. Hackett is credited with introducing ecology into landscape architecture. His program was started at University of Durham, Newcastle. "The first three students at Newcastle were Marion Paynter, who subsequently went to Heriot–Watt University in Edinburgh, Brian Blayney, who was . . . probably the first landscape architect employed on landscape reclamation, and Lewis Clarke. I persuaded the latter to try for a Henry Fellowship to visit the States [Clarke received a Fulbright and a Smith–Mundt] . . . He went to Harvard University and subsequently taught at the University of North Carolina [N.C. State College] and had a very strong influence in America. I think it was from those early days with Lewis Clarke that the idea of the ecological approach which we propagated in Newcastle took root in the USA. Now, of course, the Americans have taken this up very willingly" (p. 91).
Hester, Randolf, Jr. , 2002. Community Design. In Theory in landscape architecture: A reader, ed. Simon Swaffield. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Hester's piece is a policy graph about making the design profession "more responsible for the social suitability of the neighborhood environments they create." In policy 5, which is a call for the designer to encourage user involvement through the design process, Hester recalls the "design for people" movement. "Lewis Clarke articulated this in 1967. He pointed out that the designer's best alternative when designing for a group unknown to himself is to provide a multichoice potential environment that could be used differently by different users. This is the meaning of potential environment referenced here. It is similar to Herbert Gans' potential environment, which Gans contrasts with the effective environment" (fn 16, p. 238).
History of Elizabethan Gardens, Roanoke Island, N.C. https://www.elizabethangardens.org/history-of-the-gardens/ (accessed July 6, 2021). "In 1976 Lewis Clarke, an Englishman and a landscape architect in Raleigh designed a cloistered rose garden. The garden is called The Queen's Rose Garden and honors H.M. Queen Elizabeth II. This garden is surrounded on three sides by an eight–foot pierced brick wall made from the same old warmly colored handmade bricks used elsewhere in the Gardens. Already it looks a century old! The fourth side is a mass of mature azaleas at the height of their bloom the last two weeks in April. Access to the rose garden is through handsome brick piers down a walkway centered with a 500–year–old sundial from the Whitney collection. The pathway continues to a natural "throne" reached by three broad steps guarded by old marble lion sculptures and topped with an antique hand carved white Carrara marble bench canopied by white dogwood trees."
Honor award: Hampton Road Coliseum. 1970. North Carolina Architect 17 (11/12): 14. Architect, A. G. Odell, Jr. and Associates, Charlotte; Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke Associates (not listed). From jury comments: "This is a most dramatic and handsome structure set in the park–like setting of a 75–acre site adjacent to an artificial lake which acts as a reflecting pool for the coliseum."
Honor awards: Sanford Brick and Tile Co. office building, Sanford, N.C. 1960. Southern Architect 6 (3): 12. Black–and–white photo shows sculpture designed by Clarke and manufactured in Sanford's kiln. Round planting "boxes" instead of square ones. Favored round boxes over square ones during his water rondo stage, of which this is an example design.
Hopson, Robert S. 1972. A fountain of friendship honors a sister city tie between Charlotte, N.C., and Arequipa, Peru. American City 87 (6): 109—10. The volcano–shaped fountain in Arequipa Park was a hit with Charlotteans less than a year after its construction. Describes sister–city affiliation between Charlotte and Arequipa; Sister City program "grew out of the People to People Program initiated by President Eisenhower in 1956." In 1970, Arequipa dedicated a park to Charlotte and interest renewed in Charlotte. Park was built with 1969 bond money plus funding from the Belk Foundation. "The firm of Lewis Clarke Associates of Raleigh, N.C., was retained as landscape architect." The shape of the extinct volcano in Arequipa, "Old Misti," inspired three–tiered fountain which holds 9370 gallons of water. Includes technical description of pump and lighting. Short discussion of pedestrian pattern considerations in design. To draw people into the park, LCA designed low walls and benches, a "lavishly planted walled garden" with "bronze screens and gate executed by local sculptor, H. Austin Fox." Quote from Charlotte News and Observer: "Arequipa Park is that rarest of things in a city—a refreshing place to pause." [Note: Park demolished in 1990s to accommodate library renovations. Panels are stored by Parks and Recreation Department.]
Hornbeck, James S., ed. 1962. Enclosed mall with an outdoor feel. In Stores and shopping centers, 164—69. New York: McGraw–Hill. Five–page spread on Cherry Hill "shopping center." Includes description of mall exterior as well as interior. Nine black–and–white photos. One plot plan showing building footprint and parking plan. Lewis J. Clarke listed as landscape architect.
How a landscape architect can help you. 1979. House Beautiful's gardening and outdoor living 40:70—73. Photographs unattributed. Interview with two "experts," Philip N. Winslow and Lewis Clarke, interspersed with narrative and quotes. Questions asked include: what is landscaping, what does a landscape architect do, what does a landscape architect cost, and how to pick a landscape architect. Includes one of Clarke's famous quotes that people "respond to space through intuition and senses. They know they like something but they don't know why. It is up to the landscape architect to translate into specific terms what the clients sense that they want." Clarke puts cost of landscape architect into context of collecting art or other objects, in that the landscape is something to be enjoyed as a hobby might be enjoyed. In discussion about fees, a master plan with phasing for client is suggested. An article about the practice that is worth reading because of its basic, simple explanations.
Johnson, Jan. 1975. Citizens voice fears over hospital's site. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). August 19:sec. A, 3. A report on citizens meeting with officials and designers for proposed Rex Hospital on Glenwood Ave. Addressing concerns about flooding, Clarke answered crowd that a series of holding ponds were being designed as well as piping to discharge away from property. Concerns were about entrances. Clarke assured crowd the only entrances were off of Glenwood Ave.
Johnson, Jory. 1999. Modernism Reconsidered. Landscape Architecture 89 (11): 36. Johnson attempts to nail down the years of the Modernist movement and to identify the practitioners who should be included. He interviewed Clarke on the topic. Clarke said, "It is a period yet to be discovered, about which little has been written, and that mostly misstated, while its practitioners are frequently confused with others."
King, Adrian. 1964. Redeveloped State government center: Lake, high–rise buildings, highlights of latest plan. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). July 19:sec. III. A plan that included a series of lakes with Legislature Building in the middle and all state government facilities consolidated into a series of high rises. Harwell H. Harris, Raleigh architect; Lewis Clarke, Raleigh landscape architect; Carl Feiss, planning consultant, Washington; John H. Horn, Raleigh transportation consultant; Sidney Hollander Associates, economic analysts, Baltimore, Md.; and Megatech Inc., Raleigh. The plan was designed to meet the needs of an estimated 16,000 state employees in the year 2000. Includes black–and–white photos of models and rendering, and one color plan view of lakes.
Landscaping and the modern shopping center. 1959. Landscaping: Magazine of the American Landscape Industry 5 (5 September): 8—10. Discusses advent of regional shopping centers as market place destination for assorted activities from shopping to cultural events and gives reasons why landscape architects need to be involved. Makes point of how important landscaping is to shopping experience. As sources of authority, author contacted landscape architect Neal Butler of the architectural firm of Victor Gruen Associates (Gruen was architect on Cherry Hill Mall in which Lewis Clarke designed the interior planting), and landscape architect John Ratekin. Mentions that attention may be turning from regional shopping malls to redevelopment of metropolitan commercial core areas. This article is important in establishing the genesis of the "streets to people" movement.
Lewis Clarke. 1967. [source not known]. October 24. Clarke to lecture on "The Five Senses of Design" in the Olivia Raney Library auditorium. Second in a series of six lectures [newspaper article].
Lewis Clarke Associates. [1968?]. Specifications for School of Design, laboratory garden, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N.C. Design for garden that has since been replaced by a building.
Lewis Clarke Associates. 1969. Design and development guide for Palmetto Dunes, Hilton Head Island. NCSU Libraries' Special Collections Research Center's copy inscribed "To Dean Kamphoefner with appreciation and Best Wishes Dec 69. Lewis Clarke."
Lewis Clarke Associates. 1974. Development guide, North Carolina Zoological Park: A concept of environmental involvement. N.C. Zoological Authority. Building Committee. Development guide prepared for the North Carolina Zoological Authority through its Building Committee, in conjunction with the planning team of J. Hyatt Hammond Associates, Inc., Lewis Clarke Associates, and the Ecological Park Staff.
Lewis Clarke Oral Histories. 2008-2012. Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries. MC 00191. These oral histories represent a cross section of students who attended the North Carolina State University School (now College) of Design between 1950 and 1980 in architecture and landscape architecture. Also included are interviews with Clarke family members, NCSU professors who taught landscape architecture students, and clients and professionals who worked with or for Lewis Clarke Associates. Audio, transcripts, field notes, and Abstract/Tape Logs available online.
McHarg, Ian L. 1996. A quest for life: An autobiography. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 141, 167 —68. After initiating a research study, "Metropolitan Open Space from Natural Processes," McHarg started a "project using ecology as the basis for landscape architecture, advanced by Lewis Clarke." In 1961, McHarg hired "a bright English landscape architect, Lewis Clarke, to teach a six–week program at Penn. He had obtained a diploma in architecture from the University of Newcastle [should be Durham], where he had studied under Brian Hackett. If anyone deserves recognition for having introduced ecology as the underlying science for landscape architecture, Brian Hackett is the primary candidate. Clarke had two obsessions. The first was hydroponics . . . the second was ecology. This [ecology] he proposed to employ in undertaking a plan for the real project underway to build Levittown in nearby Buck's County. His class included a small but distinguished group" (Michael Hough, Phillip Langley, Timothy Cochran, Michael Langlay–Smith, Frank Burgraff, Lois Sherr, and A.J. Walmsley). The project was successful but "neither Mr. Levitt nor anyone else paid any attention to it—their loss." However, McHarg was "powerfully persuaded."
Merit award: William Trent Ragland building, Research Triangle Park. 1969. North Carolina Architect 16 (2): 16—17. Architect, Hayes, Howell & Associates; General contractor, Hunt Construction Co.; Engineers, Gardner–Kline Associates; Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke Associates. An H–designed office building with individual offices. All have windows. Some views are into long vistas interspersed with native pines. Others look into interior courtyards. Project is sparsely planted except on main entrance where grade is traversed with two sets of stairs and two small plazas at separate levels. This project of note because of the large scale and because standards were still being set in Research Triangle Park.
Mr. Lewis Clarke, speakers at the State Convention. 1965. N.C. Gardener 34 (1): 13. "Mr. Lewis Clarke, distinguished member of the UNC–R faculty, will highlight the Awards Banquet on Tuesday evening, May 4. Mr. Clarke, who holds degrees in both Landscape Architecture and Architecture, will illustrate his talk, 'Design, Land, and People,' with color slides." The announcement is typical of other garden club talks that Clarke usually gave. Announcement also shows that at one time NCSU was called UNC–R. Includes black–and– white photo taken by Shelburne Studios.
Mt. Olive (NC) Tribune. 1967. Husband of local girl promoted. August 1. Clarke to serve as acting head of University Department of Landscape Design in the absence of Richard A. Moore, who is taking a leave of absence to work in Hawaii. "Clarke, a native of England, has been a member of the School of Design faculty since 1951. Married to the former Kit Swinson of Mt. Olive." Worked on site designs for Research Triangle Park and shopping centers in N.C. and other states. Co–winner with Professor Armstrong Malthie, Math Department, of outstanding teacher award and named top teacher by NCSU senior class, 1961.
NCAIA award of merit: National Headquarters Building, Research Triangle Park. 1965. North Carolina Architect 12 (4): 8. Architects, G. Milton Small and Associates; Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke Associates. Includes two black–and–white photos of building, floor plan, and site plan.
New Hanover Memorial Hospital. 1969. North Carolina Architect 16 (4): 9. Three black–and–white photos. One is three–fourths page of exterior entrance and shows a signature Lewis Clarke Associates fountain (far right). Plan view sketch of planting plan doesn't look like LCA drawing style, but may be early effort of one of first of the associates. Design is definitely Lewis Clarke.
New shopping concept at Cherry Hill. 1961. Rohms and Haas Reporter 19 (6): 14—17. This report published by company that manufactures "the Implex family of high impact acrylic plastic molding powders," which are used in signage manufacture. Discusses the new use of Rohms and Haas Plexiglass in Cherry Hill Mall not only in signage but also in skylights over Cherry Court that "provide the tropical garden below with all the daylight necessary to stimulate an outdoor appearance and promote plant growth." Describes Court's vaulted ceiling. Reports on the Mall from perspective of signage but reveals additional details about the interior landscape: "An exotic atmosphere of palm trees, a tropical garden with seventy–five varieties of plants, a twenty foot high aviary for toucans, mynas, parrots, Australian finches, pheasants and partridges, a sidewalk cafe, and an art exhibit . . . The center has two malls—Penn Mall and Delaware Mall—which radiate from Cherry Court; the malls form an L–shaped building which is completely enclosed and provides year–round controlled temperature. . . . The underlying purpose of the enclosed shopping center, states architect Victor Gruen, is to make people feel that they are outdoors . . . " Front cover, full color photo taken at eye level in Cherry Court showing bridge and vaulted ceiling, ficus trees, and palms. Photos with article feature signage.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1954. College trio awarded $500. December 26, morning edition. Professor and two fourth–year School of Design students awarded fourth place, $500 prize, in the International Carson Pirie Scott and Company Centennial Competition. Professor Lewis Clarke "of the college's famed School of Design and students Roger Montgomery of Yellow Springs, Ohio, and Ben Gary of Henderson [N.C.] received the prize for scale model of the revitalized central business area of Chicago. Total amount of awards received by the School since established July 1, 1948, equals $49,703."
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1965. Landscape architects lay plans. October 21. Beautification was "erupting into a national campaign." North Carolina Chapter of American Society of Landscape Architects met in Atlantic Beach, N.C., to educate people about "rape of the land." They coined the word, anthropogeomorphology, which means "the reasoned understanding of man, land, plants, air and water and how the destruction of one of the natural elements by man would eventually eliminate all the others." Black–and–white photo of landscape architects John Townsend, Greensboro; Richard Moore, Raleigh; Robert McDonald, Charlotte; A. B. Moore, Wilmington; Rufus Coulter, Durham.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1965. 'Sin against the land.' October 22. Editorial lauding a group of landscape architects who met in Atlantic Beach to declare "a kind of religious war against 'sin in any form as it affects the land.'" Clarke was present.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1966. Triangle groups get awards for landscaping. January [date not known]. The American Association of Nurserymen awarded Lewis Clarke and Wayside Gardens for work on Research Triangle Institute's Chemstrand Research Center and the Research Triangle Foundation. Award was for "achievements in industrial and institutional landscaping and beautification contributing to employee and civic pride in our American heritage." Includes black–and–white photo of Chemstrand Research Center (first facility constructed) and Camille–Dreyfus Laboratory.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1967. For doctors: Efficiency plus beauty. July 16. Glenwood Professional Village, a set of suites for thirty–seven doctors on 6.4 acres near intersection of Glenwood Avenue and Oberlin Road. The innovation was building specifically for doctors' offices. The problem to overcome was drainage. "The overflow from Boone's pond flows in a wide ditch between the two buildings. Eventually creek to be converted into two large reflecting pools. Lewis Clarke, landscape architect."
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1967. Improvement plan is studied for park. [Date not known]. A possible plan to upgrade and improve Pullen Park with help of N.C. State University design students presented to City Council. W. H. Carper, city manager, called some of the plans "rather far out" but noted the "newness" and "excitement which park needs if it is to become a leading recreational area again." City had two choices: hire an "expensive professional landscape architect or continue with the students." [City chose to go with Dick Bell, who had access to the students' work.]
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1967. New assignments. July 28. Lewis Clarke, twice voted an "Outstanding Teacher" at N.C. State University, to serve as acting head of University's Department of Landscape Design during 1967–68 academic year.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1968. Garden highlights of chancellor's home. April 21. Chancellor's home at the University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill is Georgian style. The patio, "done by Lewis Clarke, the landscape architect, is framed in huge pines, oaks, dogwood, English box, and spring flowering shrubs." According to Mrs. Sitterson, the chancellor's wife, "There's not a season when it isn't lovely." House and garden featured in Chapel Hill house tour. Last time house was on tour was 1960 when garden was mostly grass. "Lewis Clarke planned the new garden. At the rear is a rectangular pool flanked by clusters of garden furniture arranged for friendly visiting. Slatted wooden benches in gray–green rim the paved area. . . . The paving bricks are a soft pink hue, a color that is augmented in spring by bordering clumps of purple and yellow pansies, flowering bulbs, and the fresh new green of English box." Other features: yellow and crimson blossoms dominate garden a great part of year. "Early flowering camellias, azaleas, and tulips are a riot of reds. Later geraniums are crimson and white." Caladiums, white and green, fill in shadows. Yellow and bronze chrysanthemums are planted in fall pots. Iron garden furniture is antique green with white cushions to echo colors of caladiums. Includes 8 x 10 black–and–white photo of patio with pool and surrounding vegetation.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1968. Spectacular York gardens entertain C&D guests. April 24:13. Conservation and Development Board entertained in J. W. York's home and gardens. 220 attended. "Though York home is match for any House Beautiful feature, the gardens are their pride, joy and greatest asset." Fifty acres landscaped by Lewis Clarke, "ground covered in white dogwood, azaleas: Pink Pearl, Christmas Cheer, Hyno–crimson and Masssoit." Water is piped in to "splash in small falls, wander through azalea beds, then disappears underground only to appear again at a lower level. It finally cascades into a rocky grotto under the hillside on which the house stands, and then flows into small ponds. Beyond the ponds lies the clear and rippling lake with its population of mallards" and a pair of Canada geese.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1968. War declared on park plan. April 24. North Carolina conservation groups vowed to fight a plan proposed to turn William B. Umstead State Park into a recreational complex including a state zoo. J. W. York, head of Conservation and Development Board, proposed the plan.
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1969. Firms in the news. October 14. "Lewis Clarke Associates of Raleigh will be presented a landscape award certificate of merit from Mrs. Richard Nixon in Washington on Wednesday. The award, presented by the American Association of Nurserymen, commends the firm for its landscape practices."
News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). 1969. Ravenscroft plans new prep school. April 28. Announcement of new school and projected enrollment. "The firm of McKimmon and Rogers has been retained to develop the architectural aspects with Lewis Clark [sic] and Associates undertaking the landscaping and environmental planning and development." Includes drawings.
Palmetto Dunes moves into heavy construction stage. 1968. Islander. August:13—16. Magazine published by the Hilton Head Island Chamber of Commerce, Hilton Head, South Carolina. Announces first phase of Palmetto Dunes construction based on golf course designed by Robert Trent Jones, and master plan by "English–born landscape designer and land planner, Lewis Clarke. . . . The canal and lagoon system designed jointly by landscape architect Lewis Clarke and coastal engineer Dr. Per Bruun, will use saltwater from the ocean, admitted through gate valves which will control its level, permitting a change in level of two feet at maximum, and creating some 20 miles of interior waterfront along the canals, in a design similar to that used in Fort Lauderdale. . . . Another 'first' for Palmetto Dunes . . . is the use of a computer by land use designer Lewis Clarke as a design tool, enabling surveyors to obtain three times the normal standard of accuracy in laying out the project." Includes black–and–white head shot of Clarke and two–page color spread of Palmetto Dunes master plan.
Payne, Peggy. 1974. The State Zoo: A progress report. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). May 26:sec. V, 1, 2. Turning 1400–acre woodland into continents will make zoo unique. The idea is that people are the visitors, kept apart from animals. Each area described for the 20–year, $40 million plan. Architect, Hyatt Hammond of Asheboro. "Lewis Clarke Associates of Raleigh, landscape architects, are planning the zoo's landscaping." Discusses the natural features of the terrain with some augmentation of gunnite rocks. Not all areas are outside. Nine areas require interior designs so that climate can be controlled. Animals come through different channels according to Zoo Director William Hoff. Good article to reference history of zoo and what was required as zoo animals were collected and paid for.
Pelham, Ann. 1975. and Fayetteville Street. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). June 8: sec. IV, 1, 7. Explains downtown's 9–5 atmosphere. "Merchants and city officials started worrying about that ghost town aspect back in the 1950s." Claims that a newspaper artist drew a "transformed Fayetteville Street with trees, fountains, and grassy malls replacing the traffic–filled street." [LC has mentioned several times the plans for canopies and malls and several trips to other cities to see downtown revitalization projects. First mall drawings he remembers were done by Bill Webber.] Objections were led by Karl Hudson, Jr. of Hudson–Belk, and so city started over in 1962 seeking plans to revitalize three blocks of Fayetteville Street. Almost 20 years after the newspaper artist's sketch, "Lewis Clarke Associates are putting the final touches on the design for a $2.1 million mall that incorporates fountains, plazas and lots of trees and grass." Article asks how downtown got so run down. Answer: Three shopping centers opened, including Cameron Village, 1949; North Hills, 1966; and Crabtree Valley, 1972. Writer describes stores that failed or were in process of failing in the 100 block of Fayetteville Street and plans for one new privately funded building, Center Plaza; notes lack of plans for apartments or new retail. Includes large black–and–white aerial photo, diagrams, and a drawing prepared by Lewis Clarke Associates.
Photo. 1952. Block Island tomorrow? Rhode Islander, Providence Sunday Journal Magazine. March 16:3. Black–and–white photo. "Student architects working on one version of plans are a cosmopolitan group. Discussing hotel sites are Lewis Clarke, Durham, England; Jaime Bellata, Santiago, Chile; Julia Murray, New York City; and Phillip Lewis, Champaign, Illinois." [Jaime Bellata married Julie Murray].
Photo. 1955. Hibernia development planned. [source not known]. "Shown studying a master plan for long range development for Hibernia on Kerr Reservoir are (seated, left to right) Chairman C. O. Peed, Mrs. Bob Ray, H. H. Hicks and Mrs. Joe A. Watkins of Oxford. Standing (front row) Paul Anderson and M. C. Weeks, Professor Lewis Clark[e] of State College, and Dotty Morton, student. (Back row) Eddie Avent, Jim Ellis, A. B. Moore, Hal Price, Taft Bradshaw and Loddie Bryan, N.C. State students. (Tom Johnson photo.)"
Photo. [196–?]. National Award. [source not known]. American Association of Nurserymen's Annual Landscape Awards presented by Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson and Dr. Melville B. Grosvenor, chairman of the board and editor–in–chief National Geographic Society. Black–and–white photo showing Clarke, Johnson, and Grosvenor.
Photo. 1964. Landlovers. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). March 22:sec. IV, 8. Black–and–white photo of Thomas T. Hayes, Jr.'s Southern Pines residence showing landscape by Lewis Clarke.
Photo. 1964. Landscape conference. Morning Advocate (Baton Rouge). July 4:sec. B, 1. "Among featured speakers at the National Conference of Instructors of Landscape Architects at Louisiana State University, Lewis Clarke and Sam Zisman." Black and white.
Photo. 1965. Master Plan. Mt. Olive (NC) Tribune. February 5. Shown is master plan for the building program and landscape design of Mt. Olive College. Description of entrances and exits off of Highway 117 Bypass. Architects, E. Milton Small; Landscape architects, Lewis Clarke Associates.
Photo. 1966. Beauty and research. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). January 16:sec. III, 16. Black–and–white photo of Research Triangle Institute's Camille Dreyfus Laboratory. AAN Award for design by landscape architect, Lewis Clarke.
Photo. 1966. College beautification. Mt. Olive (NC) Tribune. January 14. Under the direction of Lewis Clarke Associates, "about 50 trees and shrubs being planted at Mt. Olive College."
Photo. 1968. Turtle makes a cozy playmate. Charlotte Observer. July 17. Photo montage of children playing on Tryon Mall [job #38] playground characters.
Photo. 1979. Golf course construction begins at Linville Ridge. Avery Journal (Boone, NC). October 18. Black–and–white photo of Clarke, Earl Frye and Raymond Lutgert (developers), and George Cobb (golf course architect).
Pleasing solutions to the parking problem. 1971. In Time Life encyclopedia of gardening, 43. Alexandria, Virginia: Time–Life Books. Reidsville residence. Clarke did garden and got owners to commission artist Les Laskey to do a mural to screen the street side of the carport. Color photo of Laskey's work in place.
Raker, Lynn. 2006. Lewis Clarke, FASLA: Teacher, mentor, visionary. N.C. Landscape Architecture Journal, Spring–Summer:4–8. Interview on March 17, 2006. A personal profile and overview of Clarke's work at age 79. Gives in–depth biographical information starting with schooling in England and explains how Clarke arrived in U.S. then settled in N.C. Includes spine road theory, sketches from Palmetto Dunes, and N.C. Zoo projects. Impressionistic–looking photo of J. W. York's lake garden, reminiscent of the eighteenth century. Accounts from Charlie Burkhead, Roy Pender, and David Swanson, all of whom formerly worked for Lewis Clarke Associates. Chart listing "many recognizable sites" on Lewis Clarke resume. A suggested short list of prominent designs.
Raleigh Times. 1967. NCSU landscape design students: City hears park plans. December 27. Raleigh officials hear eleven NCSU landscape design students present plans for Pullen Park. Students who drew plans were Joseph Allen of New Bern; Curtis F. Baggett, Knoxville, Tenn.; William L. Bowling, Hampton, Va.; Larry D. Cockerham, West Jefferson; James D. Cox, Asheboro; A. Settle Dockery, Rockingham; James B. LeVine, Honolulu, Hawaii; Luther E. Smith, Bel Air, Md.; Fred J. Wooten, Wilmington; Nicholas P. Young, Dania, Fla.; Eliot Miller, New York. Includes black–and–white photo of Nicholas Young, James LeVine, Professor Lewis Clarke and William L. Bowling.
Raleigh Times. 1967. Top 24 NCS teachers picked. May 17. Lewis Clarke picked as one of "Outstanding Teachers" by a student selection committee headed by Robert Goins of Robersonville, N.C. Clarke also named in 1961 and received the Alumni Association's $500 award.
Raleigh Times. 1967. Two State profs cited. May 26. Clarke and Malthie both won outstanding teachers awards, which will be presented at Commencement. Includes black–and–white photo group shot of Clarke, Harry Kelly, Malthie, and Dr. J. W. Pon.
Raleigh Times. 1968. Park would blend nature, sport. May 16:21. Drawing and proposed plan for redevelopment of William B. Umstead State Park.
Raleigh Times. 1981. For bringing us beauty. September 23. Editorial lauding the individual accomplishments of Dick Bell and Lewis Clarke on the day they both received individual awards from the American Nurseryman's Association (ANA) at the White House in Washington, D.C. Clarke received his award for the Fayetteville Street Mall in Raleigh, N.C. The editorial describes the project as "once a grimy and traffic–clogged old main street [that's been turned into] a flowering, inviting pedestrian mall [that] has already made downtown work a pleasure."
Raleigh Times. 1981. Lewis Clarke, explorer. September 15:sec. B, 1. A profile piece published on the day Clarke was at the White House to receive American Association of Nurserymen award from First Lady Nancy Reagan "for his part in the Fayetteville Street Mall Design." Among particulars, "he likes revitalizing boring settings and usually refuses predictable jobs such as shopping malls (which he terms 'pagan cathedrals')." In interview Clarke states, "It's been one of my greatest pleasures in life to be part of the team that took all the cars off Fayetteville Street. Now it's an identifiable heart and soul of downtown." Claude McKinney, Dean of the NCSU School of Design, describes Clarke as having the "ability to step into a project at any point . . . and add a deeper dimension. That's a rare gift." A good article to read for Clarke's background story.
Research Triangle—Hanes, Chemstrand. 1961. Southern Architect 7 (1): 5—8. Clarke did master plan for first phase of Research Triangle Park. Original buildings shown in photos: Chemstrand Research Center and Hanes Building. Pictures show buildings only; no planting. Text mentions Camille Dreyfus Building to be built. LCA did plan for Dreyfus.
Robbins Savings and Loan Association. 1968. North Carolina Architect 15 (10): 12—13. Architects, Hayes, Howell & Associates; General contractor, T. E. Saunders, Troy, N.C.; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke. This journal publishes annual awards and selected designs. Awards are the Chapter's "highest professional recognition for distinguished achievement in architectural design." Robbins Savings and Loan, one of three Honor Awards given by the N.C. Chapter AIA. Article includes interior pictures, plan view of garden, photo of garden front. A source to document the early years of branch bank construction.
Robinette, Gary.  Landscape architecture research. In Landscape Architectural Education, vol. 2, 192. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. On November 6–7, 1959, the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) Joint Council on Research in Landscape Architecture and the National Conference on Instruction in Landscape Architecture held the first in a series of regional conferences at the University of Georgia in Athens. The opening session was "The Need for Research." and Lewis Clarke presented his paper, "Teaching People to Use Their Eyes." Clarke is listed as assistant professor of Landscape Architecture, North Carolina State College.
Rouse, James W. 1962. Must shopping centers be inhuman? Architectural Forum: The Magazine of Building, June:104–7, 196. Rouse became most successful shopping center developer in the country. Includes short biography. Claims typical American family probably spends more time in shopping centers than in churches, libraries, or parks. How shopping center is designed—warm and welcoming vs. cold and garish—affects "attitudes of families exposed to the center day in and day out." Good traffic patterns are not enough to generate sales and what has been learned so far in design of shopping centers runs from center entrances (should have lush plantings), building mass (landscaping relieves outside facing walls), to courts and malls (plantings bring large structure into human scale). Mistakes have been made. For instance, though pleased with Cherry Hill Mall's Cherry Court, the mall needs more "surprises, more changes of pace, more liveliness, more color." Thumbnail size black–and–white photos of different mall settings including Cherry Court with vaulted ceiling and large tropical plants around round fountain. See page 196 for small black–and–white photo of bird cage in North Star Mall, San Antonio, also a Lewis Clarke project.
Sandhills Community College. 1969. North Carolina Architect 16 (5): 3. Architects, Hayes, Howell & Associates; General contractor, H. R. Johnson Construction Co.; Engineers, Gardner–Kline Associates; Mechanical engineers, H. L. Buffalo; Landscape architects, Lewis Clark Assoc. [sic]. Four black–and–white photos showing variety of innovative exterior paver patterns, sidewalk layouts, planting bed placement, and fountain.
School of Design Wall, N.C. State College. [1968?]. Romany Spartan [brochure]. 23–A–2, RS–200 50.3.58. Color photo of wall designed by Clarke when professor at the university. Consultant, Joseph H. Cox; Tile contractor, David G. Allen. The wall was serpentine, located in School of Design courtyard, and covered in a design rendered in ceramic tiles. Since removed.
Side yard walks that curve like nature. 1973. Southern Living 8 (1): 87. Designs showing that walks around the house do not have to be a straight line. The curved walk plus tall plants turns the route into a garden walk. Two photos and one plan view of walks that curve to illustrate article include the work of others. One photo shows Lewis Clarke Associates' use of full size railroad ties that required "special angular cutting to create the curves." The walk is at the Henry J. Nave residence, Southern Pines, N.C., where LCA did extensive plan.
Simo, Melanie L. 1999. 100 years of landscape architecture: Some patterns of a century. Washington, D.C.: ASLA Press. Name listed as Fellows inductee, 1980, p. 362.
Simo, Melanie L. 2001. The coalescing of different forces and ideas: A history of landscape architecture at Harvard 1900–1999. Cambridge: Harvard University School of Design. Biographical information, p. 134.
Small garden design for a contemporary house. 1959. Southern Architect 6 (12): 18—20. Mr. & Mrs. C. M. Hazelhurst residence, Southern Pines, N.C. Landscape architect, Lewis J. Clarke; Architect, Tommy T. Hayes, Jr., AIA; Landscape contractor, Wayside Gardens. Because of the way the names are listed, this residential design is likely one of the first, if not the first, designs that Clarke and Hayes worked on together. Two black–and–white photos: view at eye level through planting to deck of house; front planting at guest entrance to house shows three–trunk birch with junipers and yuccas. Plan view drawing with legend to area uses. Wayside Gardens was one of Clarke's favorite sources for plant materials.
Smart, George, Jr., comp. Thomas Thurman "Tommie" Hayes. In Triangle Modernist Houses. https://www.ncmodernist.org/hayes.htm (accessed July 6, 2021). Clarke worked frequently with Hayes Howell Associates. This Web page contains photographs of some of Tommie Hayes' designs with credit given to Clarke for the landscape architecture on two: "1987 – The Claiborne and Mary Jo Morris Residence, 1600 Morganton Road Y–70, on the 11th hole at the Cardinal Course at the Country Club of North Carolina in Pinehurst NC. Includes a pool on five acres. This was Hayes' last completed house. He died about the time they were moving in. Landscaping by Lewis Clark of Raleigh." And, "1974 – The Charles and Charlotte Russell Residence, Troy NC. Built by Myrick Construction of Star NC. Landscaping by Lewis Clarke of Raleigh."
Smart, George, Jr., comp. Arthur McKimmon II. In Triangle Modernist Houses. https://www.ncmodernist.org/mckimmon.htm (accessed July 6, 2021). McKimmon was a Raleigh native whose office was Edwards, McKimmon, and Etheridge. One photo on this Web page shows a Japanese garden designed by Lewis Clarke around 1965 for Albert and Susan Jenkins Residence, 400 Scotland Street, Raleigh. "4400 sf with two main floors plus a basement on 1.5 acres. There was a beautiful Japanese garden . . . by Lewis Clarke of the NCSU School of Design. Jenkins had a grand piano in the living room that was surrounded by windows. The living room also had a conversation pit with a fireplace. The house was sold in 1990 to Carroll and Shelia Singleton. Unfortunately, it was empty for a few years and torn down in the late 1990's. Three houses were built in its place." [aerial photo included]
South Carolina's Palmetto Dunes. 1972. Lighting Design and Application 2 (5): 47—49. Focuses on landscape lighting and the problem of "integrating light sources with the surrounding environment" at Palmetto Dunes in Hilton Head, South Carolina, a 56–acre project master planned by Lewis Clarke Associates. Three major problem areas: "entrances along main highway, the road approaching the golf club, and the clubhouse and surrounding area." Author explains solutions in technical lighting terms. Four small black–and–white photos: up–lighted tree, lighted fairway, daytime clubhouse showing tree–mounted lights, clubhouse at night showing architectural aspects up–lighted. A good article to consider when teaching about outdoor lighting.
Spirn, Anne Whiston. 2000. Ian McHarg, landscape architecture, and environmentalism: Ideas and methods in context. In Environmentalism in landscape architecture, ed. Michael Conan, 104. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks. In 1956, McHarg proposed Cape Hatteras as a project for his first class in landscape architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, which among other things explained the "relationships of animal communities to their habitat . . . it was an embryonic first step toward ecological planning at Penn. In 1959, Lewis Clarke, an Englishman, was hired to teach 'the first ecological design studio' at Penn on Levittown."
St. Andrews Presbyterian College—Laurinburg. 1962. Southern Architect 9 (7): 7. Architects, A. G. Odell, Jr., and Associates; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke, Raleigh. Describes St. Andrews' 838–acre campus with 65–acre man–made lake and causeway designed by Lewis Clarke. "Focal center of the campus is the lake, its natural setting enhanced by the beauty of careful planting. A landscaped, pedestrian causeway crosses the lake, uniting the student living and recreational section with the academic."
Sylvan retreat within brick walls. 1968. Southern Living 3 (5): 74. John Carr's Residence in Durham, N.C. Two excellent black–and–white photographs of a private exterior courtyard garden surrounded by house and brick wall. Shows use of concrete and treated 2 x 4s for patio surface. Signature birch tree in low height planting box. No lawn. Wooden bench borders the perimeter of the garden so that users face into the space rather than looking into brick wall.
Tarantino, Rhoda Specht. 1972. Emphasis on ease. In Small gardens are more fun, 129. New York: Simon and Schuster. Chapter 12, "Emphasis on Ease," covers 13 small garden themes, with about six plans for each. Book encourages small gardens that take less time than big landscapes. Of the 13, one is WSJS Radio and Television Stations' interior courtyard garden chosen as "a place for informal meetings . . . and the lovely look of green it offers to offices inside." With a bench, "a few trees for shade, green shrubs and ground cover, the seasonal bloom of azalea, magnolias and crape myrtle all contribute to a restful courtyard where employees gather for lunch and executives can take a break." The courtyard combines formal design with naturalistic plantings, "is subtly lighted for night use, and is attractive all through the year. Most of the plants can be grown throughout the country—red maple, Japanese maple, pachysandra, azalea and cotoneaster." Some are for the South only—Raphiolepis indica, Lagerstroemia indica, and lily turf, Ophiopogon. Ground cover, liriope, hardy to New York City.
Tarantino, Rhoda Specht. 1972. Two pools and a fountain. In Small gardens are more fun, 88—89. New York: Simon and Schuster. Subchapter, "Two Pools and a Fountain." The most complete description of Balentine's Restaurant Garden [no longer in existence]. The garden, made for diners' viewing, is also good for "renovated city row houses, where the back wall is often replaced with floor–to–ceiling plate glass windows and sliding doors." Balentine's garden is described as being "tucked into a 30 x 54 foot space below [grade of] a city parking deck located in Cameron Village Shopping Center, Raleigh, N.C. The pool has five jets along the left side that shower water across the surface, and an elevated basin overflowing and spilling down the rocks [feather rock] at the far corner. Partly hidden by the bamboo at the end of the garden, a fountain with water cascading into a circular pool below comfortably conditions the air around the bench." Japanese maple, crape myrtle, bamboo, ferns, hosta, and liriope give "a lighthearted tranquility in this location below the street. The leaves make lacey patterns on the glass walls and dancing shadows at night when the garden is illuminated with soft lights. Green–and–white caladiums outside the windows have a dramatic frosty appearance."
U.S.A. 5 Cherry Hill Mall, New Jersey. 1969. Journal of the American Institute of Architects. August: 20(?) Developer, Community Research and Development Corporation; Architect, Victor Gruen; Landscape architect, Lewis Clarke Associates. Project is located "within the metropolitan area of Camden, New Jersey and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This area has an average low winter temperature of 0 10 F. [sic] The area surrounding the shopping center is a commercialized suburb with minimum vegetation." The function of this indoor shopping mall "provides not only a pleasant shopping space but an area for community functions such as concerts, auto, fashion, and boat shows, exhibits and dances. By controlling the light, water and humidity, tropical plants and birds can exist." Two black–and–white photos (Xerox copy). One photo shows the arching bird cage. One is view through foliage to the gazebo and fountain.
Walker, Peter and Melanie Simo. 1994. Invisible gardens: The search for modernism in the American landscape, 258. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Monterrey Bay meeting in July 1967. The topic was the future of landscape architecture. Among the attendees and respondents were Robert Royston and Eckbo. Lewis Clarke "believed that, with their broad vision, landscape architects could be leaders in architectural and planning efforts."
Waugh, Elizabeth Culbertson. 1967. North Carolina's capital, Raleigh, 193. Raleigh: Junior League of Raleigh, N.C. State University Print Shop. Isabelle Bowden Henderson's Garden, located at 213 Oberlin Road, Raleigh. Premises have been planted since turn of the 20th century. The "high–fenced portion of the grounds was designed about 1959 by Landscape Architect Lewis Clarke in close collaboration with the owner. Its general plan is accented by a broad, curving brick path which is wide enough for two wheelbarrows to pass or for three children to race on it without disturbing the tulips, irises, or whatever else is bordering it in season."
Wigginton, Brooks E. 1963. Trees and shrubs for the Southeast. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Illustration #20, "Plants for ornament in design, foliage textures." Excellent black–and–white photo of Ballentine Restaurant Garden showing tree canopy, fountain with 5–jet pool, feather rock, use of bamboo, Japanese maple for texture and variety of leaf color and shape.
Wood, Ernie. 1975. Facelift for downtown: The State mall plan. News & Observer (Raleigh, NC). June 8:sec. IV, 1, 7. Includes interview with Shun Kanda, assistant professor of architecture at NCSU. Asks question, what will be effect on the city if such wholesale development occurs on the north end of downtown. Interview with A. C. Hall, city planning director, who was concerned that the mall would end up as one big office complex, empty at night. A lot of cities had already built malls; Pittsburgh, Detroit, Philadelphia are named. Brian Shawcroft was a critic of not doing more for downtown. Kanda points out that 9–5 state office workers comprise most of population downtown. The state wanted to build more office space. Reaches back in history to explain Raleigh's historic role as a seasonal legislature town until the 1960s. In 1962, legislature opened new government complex. In 1971, A. G. Odell's plan was accepted, which rejected the 1965 State Capital Plan on which Clarke worked. Franklin Clark of Clark, Goodwin, Harris, and Li called prior plans "pie in the sky" and said that condos mixed with government buildings just wouldn't work. Article mentions the Civic Center and an office building being constructed. A good article to get an overview of the 1970s downtown facelift and to pick up on names of the players. Includes large black–and–white aerial photo, diagrams, and drawing prepared by Lewis Clarke Associates.