The Provost's Office: An Informal History
Chapter Four: Affirmative Action
Issues Concerning Women
It was not until we began to award degrees in the humanities and the social sciences that we had more interest from prospective female students and began to actively recruit female students. At this time we had only a small number of female students and only a scattering of female faculty. With the advent of the School of Liberal Arts we began to see an increase in their numbers. We had no residence halls for women and very few other accommodations. In the 1960s few people on campus seemed to care very much. A few more years would go by before we began to see more than a handful of women enrolled in non-traditional fields. In fact most people seemed to think that the B.A. degrees might create more problems for us than they would solve. Of course the factor which helped make the need for women faculty more evident was the increase in women students. A major factor which helped besides the offering of degrees more traditionally sought by women, was the existence of housing on campus for women students. One important development which had encouraged the faster construction of on-campus housing was a resolution of the Faculty Senate to build such housing which was passed on March 3, 1964. At that time there were plans for such housing, but Senate support was helpful. The B.A. degrees and the associated increases in enrollment of women, as well as renewed interest in the sciences and engineering, contributed to our rapid growth during the 60's and early 70's. By this time, women students were sought and recruited, and we had residence halls for women students. However, in 1969 we had only 140 women graduates out of a total of 1652 who graduated that year, a very large increase over the two who earned degrees in 1948.
In 1964 we became a Corporate Member of the American Association of University Women. At this time NCSU viewed the organization as primarily a link for women students. Dues cost $25.00, and Miss Anna Clyde Fraker, a Research Associate in the Department of Engineering Research was our first liaison representative. In 1967 Dean Peterson filled out a questionnaire about mature female graduate students for the AAUW. The organization still seemed primarily concerned about students, and an EPA female staff member, Eleanor Lami in Student Affairs, provided liaison for us for many years. By the time I became Provost the organization was very concerned about the status of faculty, and we began to have a series of senior faculty women who were our liaison representatives. A faculty member usually served for two or more years.
It was in the late 60's that concerns about an adequate number of female faculty began to be discussed. It was also in the 60's when I found the first mention of a concern about the curriculum as it affected women students. At this time females were not enrolled in ROTC. The issue was: Is it appropriate for women students to graduate with fewer hours because they did not take ROTC? It was then recognized that ROTC was no longer a requirement for all male students. The issue was resolved after study, by requiring all students who were not enrolled in ROTC to take four more credit hours. This later was resolved by making all hours taken in ROTC courses a part of the free electives.
On April 18, 1968, NCSU adopted a very modified nepotism policy which liberalized, and for the first time, permitted the employment of relatives in the same department. This policy enabled us to attract couples to our faculty and increased our chances to employ more women. Prior to this time we had groupings of departments or even entire schools in which we could not employ relatives in EPA positions. The limiting factor now was that a related person in a department or unit could not be in an evaluating or supervisory position to a relative. In 1972, the Faculty Senate considered a revision of this policy but recommended that we not change the policy. On April 13, 1973, the BOG approved a new policy for all campuses of the System. Although there were considerable word changes and the new policy was longer and written in more "legalese" language, it did not substantially modify our existing policy.
I am certain that the existence of Title IX spurred our campus to try more diligently to make certain that we were not discriminating against women. The fact that we were under external pressure helped to encourage us to make changes. I know that Dr. Clark and I did use this as additional rationale to units that appeared slow in their recruitment efforts for women faculty, to other EPA positions and for SPA positions, in addition to clerical positions. Another factor that helped was to have a cadre of well respected women on campus who gave us advice and who did not let us forget the need for administrative assistance to make the playing field level at NCSU. The most valuable and constant assistance was provided by Dr. Clark who was appointed as the NCSU Title IX Compliance Officer on November 26, 1975. At periodic intervals as illustrated by the Affirmative Action Plan for Equal Employment Opportunity, we made modifications in our plans as required "Pursuant to the Requirements of Executive Order 11246, as amended." These resulted in modifications in our goals for both women and for blacks in all categories.
One of the first assignments that I received from Chancellor Caldwell after I became Provost was to advise him on a request he had received concerning the identification of the marital status of females on office door labels. The suggestion was that we say Mr. or Ms. Doe or give the males and the females first names. I asked a few persons for their opinions. Most did not give a hoot. To a very few persons it was important. Since we had no uniform policy on how names would be put on doors, my recommendation was that we not establish a door policy but encourage department heads or those responsible for labels on doors to label the door as that employee wanted. This was to be our practice, but I don't know whether it was totally implemented.
Women's concerns and issues have always been a responsibility of the Provost and began during Dr. Kelly's tenure. While the women on campus through the AAUP Committee W and through the Women's Concerns Subcommittee of the Affirmative Action Committee, and the current Council on the Status of Women, have always wanted to report to the Chancellors (who have all been deeply interested in these matters), it has been the Provost who has been most involved in the finding of solutions to problems. For example, when I became Provost I recognized that women were being hired in many departments at salaries lower than those for men at the same rank and with similar experience. I soon began to keep a running list of all the new hires and their salaries at the different ranks by department. I required that the salary proposed for all new faculty to be hired to be approved by me. If a department wanted to make an offer at a lower level than that made to a man with similar experience and rank, and some did at first, I required that the same salary be offered to the female prospect. This solved the problem of different salaries at the entry levels which are so difficult to overcome, except for those who become stars among the faculty.
To illustrate the problem, I will describe one department where, during the years of Shirley's and Kelly's tenure a serious problem developed. During Kelly's last years and my first years as Provost we had to correct it. We had a long time head of a department with good faculty, and a number of these were female. The salary structure in the department defied interpretation. Insofar as I decided, or guessed much later, he had something like this as a guideline to determine who got paid the better salaries. There did not appear to me to be different competency levels related to gender. If you were single you did not need as much to live on, he reasoned. If you were married and both members of the marriage were working you needed even less, and it appeared to be so especially if you were a woman whose husband worked anywhere. Men with larger numbers of children needed more; however, there did not seem to be a similar reward for women who had children, and this was especially true if the husbands also worked. This was a problem we had to try to get into focus so that all of the people were rewarded for the quality of their work. This department got extra salary increase funds for several years and the then department head was most helpful in getting the differences resolved as quickly as we could. He did have some problems with the questions raised by one Labor Department review which questioned several female salary levels. We agreed with the department head's assessment, but we were required to raise the issue anyway. He said in a letter to me: "Surely the Department of Labor is not going to be 'selective' about what objective criteria are to be used in determining equitableness." Some Labor Department employees who did these investigations had little experience with universities and university practices and procedures. Fortunately many learned quickly and were willing to listen to rational reasons.
Dr. Clark was also a wonderful mediator for NCSU. There came a time when we technically were supposed to have an affirmative action review every time that we had a grant of one million or more dollars. That became a frequent experience, and fortunately we did not have to go through this each time we received such a grant.
On July 15, 1977, I wrote the school deans the following memorandum.
Of course I did keep a little larger than usual fund to help eliminate discrepancies that I had noted in the same information that had been sent to the deans. The campus responded very well.
The first memorandum I found that provided specifically for extra salary increase funds for minorities and women was in a "Note to File" that I had prepared at the request of Provost Kelly on November 15, 1972. This note said that we would have a small quantity of salary increase funds to be applied to salary increases effective January 1, 1973. This note indicated that I had called the school deans and indicated to them that "as a top priority, we ask you to consider the salaries of all minorities and all women paid from 18141 (academic affairs) funds to your school to determine whether their pay is appropriate on the basis of merit." The note indicated that as a second order of priority we would consider increases for full professors or other special needs as resources permitted. The sum of the salary increase funds was $20,000.
In Chancellor Caldwell's annual report to the President for 1972-73 he stated: "The intelligent and conscientious efforts throughout the campus to expand the number of women and minority race students and staff in the enlargement of educational justice are conspicuous. Evidence seems to come slowly, but every year shows measurable advance."
On April 12, 1976, I sent the Deans, Directors and Department Heads a memorandum reporting on an AAUP Committee W survey and a meeting that I had with about 30 members of this AAUP campus group. The information that I shared with the Deans and the other individuals was the perception of a majority of the women faculty on the NCSU campus. I asked them to review the material carefully, and consider the points raised, to make certain that we were treating our women faculty equitably and that we were giving them the same opportunities given to others. The issues were as follows:
I felt that the issues were important but that their resolution required not only the constant concern of the Provost and dean, but also the entire faculty of each department. Hence, the major emphasis and focus was on the department where the assignments were made.
In every letter written to allocate salary increases I always asked the deans to make certain that these funds would also be used to eliminate salary inequities. I had used as support the salary study of Institutional Research as developed by a committee of AAUP Committee W, as well as a study by Dr. Clark which provided the deans and department heads with a computer print-out comparing female salaries in each department by rank with the males in that department. Hence, the deans always knew which individuals had been identified as having low salaries. We, of course, expected a number and a proportion of female faculty similar to that of male faculty to deviate from the average, in both the high as well as the low salaries. So our concern was not just with those with low salaries.
I also realized that the salaries of present women faculty in most departments were lower than those of men by rank. I established each year during my tenure as Provost some salary increase funds to try to address these differences. At first the problems were worse in SHASS which had the most female faculty appointments. The report of Dr. Clark's provided information so that salaries would be seen by the department head and the dean and evaluated on the basis of contributions at the department and school levels for salary increases. It also gave me a tool to aid in my salary reviews with deans. In the mid-to late eighties we began to require that the deans explain the rationale if a female faculty member on the AAUP Committee W list did not get at least an average increase. I listed from an analysis of salaries some females whose salaries were statistically below those of similarly ranked faculty men. I held a special meeting with each dean prior to my making the salary increase allocations each year. In this case the dean provided me with reasons why the female's salary was lower or a statement that he would make an adjustment. Just before I retired I could look at salary data, and feel that we had really reached my goal of having no real statistical differences by field by gender in salaries. I understand that Hart continued these studies and reviews.
I also followed rank and promotions carefully. In this case I could find little difference by gender in the time required for promotion in a specific unit. Dr. Kelly's and my early efforts in this area seemed to have reached appropriate status sooner. There are some female faculty whose salaries were low in units, but there were similar proportions of men. This is also true for rank. There are considerable differences among schools for both salary and time required for promotion, but I could not detect differences on the basis of gender within a department.
The most difficult problem was getting more female faculty hired. This was a concern of Provosts Kelly and Hart too. In 1971, when I was reallocating positions for Dr. Kelly to the Deans, we began earmarking a few positions that must be filled by a black or a female. One such example was in PAMS where they had two vacancies, so one was earmarked for a female. In 1972, as another example, I met with a search committee in Psychology and explained to them why we would not consider white males for a vacancy in their department until we considered qualified blacks and/or females. At that time they had neither on their faculty. I indicated to them that we had encouraged employment of females and blacks in the past but had seen little increase in the number of such faculty. I indicated that: "We are now attempting to identify vacant positions and are requesting that certain of these be filled by either blacks or females." The search committee indicated that this had been a traumatic experience for them and they had wished that we had explained this in person. I indicated in a "Note to File" on January 24, 1972, that we parted on friendly terms and that they had volunteered to help in the development of our compliance plan. They did fill this vacant position with a female.
I finally decided that most departments on most occasions could and usually did find a "better qualified" male to fill vacancies based on the criteria that they used (which seemed to include number and quality of publications). In many fields doctorates among females were scarce. The breakthrough began to come when it was learned that a school or department would likely get a new and extra position if they found a qualified female prospect. While I did not hold a pool of vacant positions for females as I did for African-Americans, I always asked before I allocated positions about the prospects of new female faculty hires and gave new positions for this purpose. The major source for these newly allocated permanent positions was the temporary position pool where I would convert a temporary position to a permanent one. It helped in many cases, but I'll only mention two. In one case a dean came forward with a proposal for a substantial increase in the salary of a temporary faculty member in a department which had no female faculty. I asked, if she is this good why hasn't she been made permanent. The dean thought this was great, so the faculty in the department also decided that they wanted her and the additional permanent position. In another case I had been trying for years to give a position to a department with no women faculty. They never seemed to be able to find a woman as well qualified as some male applicant. On the retirement of the department head, the dean of the school and I connived and discussed the problem with prospective heads in interviews. When the department came up with three prospects who were the best qualified (and they were), the dean and I found a way to provide positions for all three. Our best success in recruiting female faculty has been in CHASS. Each year when I asked deans to outline their needs in their requests for new positions I reminded them that their requests should include positions "needed to meet your affirmative action guidelines for blacks and women which cannot be met with positions to be vacated by retirements." In my letters of position allocations to deans or to other units I always reviewed the progress of our efforts in meeting our affirmative action goals for women and blacks. In 1976 I included in the allocation letters a statement similar to that:
We also established a policy which required a review and approval by Dr. Clark of affirmative action efforts before any offer could be made to fill a vacant position for EPA employees.
On October 5, 1973, our Affirmative Action Plan was reported to the NCSU Trustees. This plan was, of course, a part of the BOG System plan which had been submitted to HEW. It was indicated that HEW had informed us that a preliminary evaluation of the proposed Affirmative Action Compliance Program had been completed and that for the most part the proposed NCSU plan was responsive to the HEW requests for corrective actions relating to Executive Order 11375. We were at that time preparing additional information requested by HEW before final evaluation of the plan could be completed. As we all know, it would not be long before the Courts would rule that the plans of several states, including North Carolina, were not satisfactory and it was not until later (see the Race section which follows for details) that the courts finally ruled that our plans, revised many times, were satisfactory.
As we set up our affirmative action structure on campus under Dr. Clark's direction, we set up each school as a separate unit with additional affirmative action units in Student Affairs, Libraries, Business Affairs, University Extension and Special Units. Each had an affirmative action coordinator in the school or unit who reported to the dean or other appropriate administrator and who was accessible to Dr. Clark. Each worked within their own units to develop goals of employees in the following groups of personnel: EPA Non-Faculty, EPA Faculty and SPA employees. Goals were set for race and gender. This plan then got all of the units and even departments or groups of departments to set their goals and make them a part of the program. We hoped that this would make them feel responsible for reaching the set goals, and in general it did. In a few cases they set goals above those that we would have considered minimal. In a few other cases we did have to ask a unit to reconsider their goals and to try to come up with a higher goal. Goals were set on the basis of new doctorates awarded in the field (or the appropriate terminal degree for the field) and based on estimates of vacancies to occur in the unit and on anticipated increases in faculty or staff. For SPA employees the goals were set using other manpower data and were based on availability figures of personnel in various fields. Soon after Dr. Clark came to NCSU, I designated some funds which could be used to bring female role models or others to address issues of concern to women on our campus. This has, I believe, been quite successful. We also normally have paid for or helped to support the speaker at the Susan B. Anthony dinner. I asked those responsible for the development of the programs which we sponsored to try to have a program which would give us some goals to accomplish rather than just to have an expensive name who would give a nice talk. I hoped that these programs would leave us better off than we had been before we had them. We also wanted to sponsor those who would address issues that were of most concern to our faculty and staff. In the spring of 1988, I thought that we had an especially effective series of talks and seminars in addition to the Susan B. Anthony speaker, Katherine Stinson, our first female graduate in Engineering. Talks given that spring included some local and some visiting speakers. Most of the six special seminars dealt with communication and networking.
An additional item encouraged by Provosts Kelly, Hart and me was to increase the number of women's studies courses available. The need and wish is exemplified by a request from Joan Crockett and a group of students who signed a petition which was sent to the Head of the History Department in 1977. The petition has no date. The letter reads: "The attached petition is for your consideration in determining the interest in a women's history course at North Carolina State University. As you will see from the petition, there are many women on our campus who are very interested in learning more about women's history and we feel special attention to this subject is necessary because of the negligent way it has been treated by authors of our history books." These students wanted a course at the 400 or the 500 level. We called Dean Tilman to let him know that if it were a matter of resources, we would help. We also strongly supported the development of the Women's Studies minor, which did later develop. None of us encouraged the development of a major in this area. One of the early courses taught was in University Studies entitled "The Role of Women." It was first taught by Barbara Baines (English), Renee Steffensmeier (Sociology) and Robert Fern (Economics). It was novel enough that the Raleigh Times published a story about the course on July 26, 1973.
In the early 1980s we did begin to get some complaints from women that we were overloading women with assignments on University committees. While the complaints were not overwhelming I thought that it was very pleasant to receive that complaint instead of one that said that women were underrepresented on University committees.
On January 4, 1984, Chancellor Poulton established the Council on Women's Affairs. He stated:
In 1987 the Council met with the Chancellor and Provost and the following were items on their agenda: (1) Academic and Administrative opportunities for NCSU Women; (2) Sexual Harassment Guidelines; (3) Faculty Salary Study, and (4) Establishment of Administrative Position for Women's Concerns.
In a 1985 paper, "Affirmative Action for Women Faculty, Case Studies of Three Successful Institutions, in the Journal of Higher Education, (May/June 1985, 56, pp 282-299), Patricia Hyer selected NCSU, based on national data, as a place where efforts to hire women were working. We were selected as one of three doctoral granting universities for inclusion in the study. I quote a brief account of what she said.
Each year Dr. Clark and I together took our data to the school deans' offices, rather than have them come to my office, to talk about the number of hires against their goals.
Sexual harassment has occurred on our campus as on others. We had treated the matter as very important and established a policy against such activity and had developed a process for the study and investigation of charges. These were all done in concert with the advice and help of appropriate faculty, staff and students and in consultation with the University Attorney. In 1982 NCSU issued its first policy on Sexual Harassment. A copy was distributed to all students, staff and EPA employees. A committee of faculty also developed an Informal Grievance procedure which everyone hoped could resolve most complaints and problems. Formal charges were to be handled through existing grievance procedures for EPA employees, SPA employees and students. In 1982-83 the Faculty Senate developed a formal Student Grievance Procedure which was adopted after a conference committee was formed in 1983. In 1983-84 we had a series of seminars on sexual harassment. In 1986 the Faculty Senate made recommendations to revise the Grievance procedures.
We have handled a number of major and minor problems. Fortunately most cases were handled by the informal procedures. All cases were serious and quite real to the affected persons. In handling cases where individuals were found guilty of sexual harassment we have offered, in a few cases, the opportunity for the employee to resign at the end of the semester or to be fired using the standard procedures. In a few others it seemed more appropriate simply not to reappoint the individual at the expiration of a term when the person was in the last year of their appointment. These were the most serious cases. I do not recall any who did not accept the offer. In others we removed the faculty member from the classroom or from the administrative responsibility in the area in which the harassment was occurring. In others we reduced the salary increase or eliminated a salary increase. In all cases where there was harassment, the faculty member or the person in charge was held accountable. We also had claims that upon investigation were not found to be sexual harassment. We did adhere to the NCSU policy on sexual harassment, and in 1987 we revised our policy and procedures.
In the late eighties, I supported a group who studied sexual harassment at NCSU. Members were Rebecca Leonard, Laura Carroll, Gail Hankins, Carolyn H. Maidon, Paul F. Potorti and Janet Rogers. On September 19, 1989, they submitted a report to me. On September 26, I wrote the Dean's Council sending them a copy of the report and placed it on the agenda for the October 11, 1989, meeting. I indicated to the deans that, "Specific cases that have been called to my attention have made me aware that this is indeed a most serious matter. This study causes me to have even greater concern. We will not review the details of the report at our meeting, but I will be looking for suggestions of how we can enhance the awareness of the seriousness of this issue among our administrators and faculty." We later held a series of meeting to which all faculty and administrators were invited to attend to increase campus awareness. The report was also made available to each department with the hope that all would read it. It was agreed that we would resurvey the campus for sexual harassment activities every five years. I do believe that our efforts helped to increase understanding of the existence of the problem and helped to reduce the incidence of harassment, but I am certain that the problem was not eliminated.
One of the two recognitions that surprised me the most and that I am most proud of was the "Equity for Women Award" given to me on September 11, 1990, by the NCSU Council on the Status of Women. It is a clock plaque and states: "In recognition of his leadership in the advancement of Women at NCSU."
In 1955 Walter Peterson, Chairman of the Faculty Senate wrote to William Friday, Secretary of the UNC System, and told him of a resolution under consideration by the Faculty Senate. The resolution read:
Dean Shirley wrote the Director of the College Union on June 23, 1956, and said:
In 1962 after Shirley had been elected to the Chairmanship of the North Carolina College Conference, he recommended that the N. C. College Conference merge with the Negro College Conference in North Carolina. In so far as I can tell this was the first proposal for this merger and it was soon adopted. The two merged and now meet as the North Carolina Association of Colleges and Universities. This was an important step for higher education in North Carolina and probably would have happened in time, but I'm proud that a predecessor of mine made the proposal.
I could not detect that Dean Shirley played a major role in affirmative action or race related activities during his tenure. There are suggestions in the files that he and other members of the Administrative Council were consulted but that Chancellor Bostian, Chancellor Caldwell and Dean James Stewart, the Dean of Student Affairs, were much more actively concerned and played the leadership roles while Shirley was Dean of the Faculty.
Early in Dr. Kelly's tenure I began to note that he was encouraging a variety of activities. These included hiring minority faculty and staff. In fact he was the first major office holder in Holladay Hall to hire a black woman as his secretary. We had other black SPA personnel on the Provost's clerical staff. He encouraged a closer working relationship with the predominately black colleges in Raleigh and was especially helpful to St. Augustine's College. He was very much concerned about the well being of our black students and encouraged an increase in the number of black students. At this time the Admission's Office and recruitment was under Student Affairs. He supported Student Affairs in its request for more resources and for other types of assistance in this area.
On February 20, 1968, Dr. Kelly wrote the National Science Foundation a letter which responded to an inquiry. He said:
On March 14, 1968, a report said that with the exception of one Extension Assistant Professor in Sociology who was employed by the Agricultural Extension Service, and six part-time instructors at the Fort Bragg Division, all of our African-American EPA personnel were employed as Extension Specialists in the Agricultural Extension Service. This was a sad commentary on our failure to attract black faculty in academic affairs. This lack would not improve rapidly.
In its resolution of April 9 1968, the Faculty Senate made a statement on Racial and Religious Discrimination. It expressed the gravest concern about the unsolved economic and social problems which are an important cause of much of the civil disorder afflicting our country. The resolution of April 9, 1968, called for action by national and state governments, but recognized that:
It was about this time that the NCSU Women's Club was scheduled to have a meeting and dinner at the Carolina Country Club. When those arranging for the meeting learned of the Club's Segregation Policy they rescheduled their meeting elsewhere. With respect to housing we did start to refuse to list off-campus housing that would not make facilities available to persons of all races, religions or nationalities. This was an important matter because at that time students who did not get on-campus housing usually went first to the Housing Office to find other places to live.
At this time we did not have many student applicants who were Negro, qualified or unqualified. It was soon to become evident that advertising alone would not get many applicants. We began to employ and use some undergraduate black students to help the Admissions Office in its recruiting efforts. We had to try very hard to get minority students to apply for admission to NCSU. We first added one full-time black Assistant Director of Admissions and later we added a second. They helped our recruitment efforts very much. We had almost no applicants from Wake County at this time, and it was not until about the time that I became Provost we began to understand the problem.
In 1969 Provost Kelly received an inquiry about Black Studies at NCSU. His response included. "At present we have few black courses; however, through a cooperative arrangement with Shaw University and Saint Augustine's College, students from NCSU may take any of their extensive offerings in Black Studies." This was through the Cooperating Raleigh Colleges programs. He also indicated that we had no plan to offer a degree in the area, but that we did hope to offer more courses in sociology, anthropology, literature, history, and politics.
In the early years of the 1970s we could not ask prospective students what their race was. It seemed that those who created the national regulations felt that if we knew a prospective student was black, we would be more likely to discriminate and not to admit them to NCSU. So at that time we could not say precisely how many black students we had in various categories. However, since we had very few black students, our estimates were probably close. In the early 1980s our records were accurate and we did ask prospective students, faculty and employees for their racial identity because all had learned that progress was better when there was identity.
The first African-American faculty member was Vivian Henderson, a Visiting Professor in Economics, who came in 1962. Dr. Henderson was to become one of Dr. Martin Luther King's lieutenants during the Civil Rights Movement. Our first faculty member with faculty rank and in the tenure track was Dr. Dorothy Williams, and she came to NCSU in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology in 1965. She resigned a short time later and went to Shaw University. Harold McNeill became an Assistant Professor of Adult Education in 1968. P. P. Thompson was appointed in the Sociology Department in 1969. These last two faculty were long time members of the Agricultural Extension Service and were paid from that funding source. In 1970, the only black faculty member employed at NCSU against the academic affairs budget and in the tenure track was Dr. Odell Uzzell, Associate Professor of Sociology. He came to us from Fayetteville State College. I had gotten to know Dr. Uzzell through my work with the Fort Bragg Branch of NCSU and had a lot to do with assisting the department to hire him. When I first mentioned the possibility to the department head, he said that they would be delighted to have a chance to hire Dr. Uzzell, but at that time they did not have a vacant position. Dr. Kelly gave them a new position and at the salary level needed. In the spring semester of 1973 Dr. Uzzell was the leader and coordinator for a symposium "The Black Experience: Blacks in Business and Politics." Among the outstanding cast of speakers was Vivian Henderson who was now the President of Clark College in Atlanta.
Augustus Witherspoon obtained his Ph.D. in 1970 and, I believe, was the first of several African-Americans who became faculty members at NCSU after obtaining their doctorates here. He had been an instructor for a couple of years in the same department. Witherspoon held several important positions in the administration at NCSU and played an important role in helping us to improve the climate for African-Americans at NCSU. Some of the others who obtained the doctorate at NCSU and who were faculty at NCSU in 1991 were: Clyde Chesney, Orlando Hankins, Carol Love, Pam Banks-Lee, Jackie Hughes-Oliver and Harold Freeman. Dr. Freeman, a native of Raleigh and a graduate of the old Ligon High School in Raleigh, is a professor in the College of Textiles. He is also our first African-American to become a Named Professor; the Ciba-Geigy Professor of Dyestuff Chemistry. Others who obtained their doctorates here and served here for a short time have moved on to other universities or to industry.
In 1970 the Chancellor told the Faculty Senate that we would be unable to hire more black faculty members unless we actively sought them. In 1970, the Chancellor's Good Neighbor Council proposed that one way we could get more black faculty on campus, would be to have some faculty exchanges with predominately black institutions. It seemed that we had a number of faculty who would like to participate. This turned out to be very difficult, for it involved matching classes to be taught on two campuses with individuals from two campuses that wished to be involved. Even under the Consent Decree, when the UNC system had funds to pay for the exchanges and for travel costs among the members of the UNC BOG system, we had few exchanges take place for the same reasons. We were more likely to have exchanges when one needed an extra section or an entire class and the receiving University did not have a qualified faculty member. This happened occasionally under BOG, but not very often. We were able to have a few of our faculty teach a needed course at Shaw or Saint Augustine's and a few from those institutions who taught at NCSU under the Cooperative Raleigh Colleges Program. This was easier to arrange because the locations were convenient and the exchange almost always was on an overload basis and the faculty member received pay from the borrowing institution. No matching exchanges were required. The numbers were small and disappointing to those of us who were struggling to get a larger black faculty presence on campus. This procedure was suggested by many others, including students. Most could not understand why it wouldn't work, but it is difficult and costly even under the BOG system for the faculty member and their families to transplant themselves to another place for a semester or for a year. The reward to the individual was not adequate and most would not consider the value of the exchange to the individual as equal to that of Off-campus Scholarly Assignment.
One among many of our problems in hiring black faculty was that there was a scarcity of holders of doctorates among blacks in non-traditional fields and especially in the sciences, which predominated at NCSU. There were few African-American doctorates in Forestry, Engineering, Design, Veterinary Medicine, PAMS, Textiles, Business Management and Accounting, and in most of the fields in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences. There were surpluses in no fields that I knew of. It was evident that we and all of the other doctorate granting institutions had to recruit vigorously at the graduate student level to increase the supply. Not much happened at first because recruitment of graduate students was always done at the departmental level. Graduate deans were reluctant, and most did not want to intrude in the hiring practice. After a long time we learned, as did a number of universities, that if we were to increase the numbers of African-Americans with doctorates in these fields we would have to develop a recruitment strategy at the Graduate School level for the entire university, and that this strategy would assist and encourage departments in their recruitment efforts. We needed a black presence in the Graduate School. Dean Stannett was very willing, and we came up with a one-half time position out of our own resources. Dr. Augustus Witherspoon was hired by the Graduate School for this purpose in 1979. I'm pleased that we finally were able to get a position which had been badly needed for some time. Recruitment of undergraduate students by graduate programs in many fields is not easy, and in these fields we even have shortages of US citizens with doctorates. The best students are recruited very heavily by industry, and their pay with a B.S. sometimes almost equals that of the beginning doctorate. For the best African-American students the competition by industry was even greater and the supply was short, for traditionally blacks had not majored as undergraduates in these fields.
In 1985, when Chancellor Poulton appointed an Advisory group from the Black Community, Vernon Malone responded: "N.C. State University is an outstanding university and there is no logical reason why more academically capable minority students do not take advantage of its offerings." I recall a similar meeting in 1974 when Mr. Malone told us that no child of his would ever attend NCSU. He told us how racist and red-necked we were and how badly we were viewed by black citizens in Raleigh. So over the years we did improve.
In 1970 there was some flack about Dr. Kelly's push to get courses taught in Afro-American and Asian history. The History Department faculty asked the head to write the following letter:
Dr. Kelly wrote the dean and asked, "What prompted this? Is there some hidden meaning? What about coordination with the rest of the University? Don't they have an obligation to discuss needs and approaches with colleagues in other disciplines?" A part of Dean Cahill's response follows:
In 1971 the first African-American fraternity was organized on the NCSU campus. It was Alpha Phi Alpha, Inc. Today in 1993, we have three others. They are Omega Psi Phi Inc., Kappa Alpha Psi Inc., and Phi Beta Sigma Inc. In 1972 the first African-American Sorority was chartered. It was Delta Sigma Theta Inc. Today we have three others and they are: Alpha Kappa Alpha Inc., Sigma Gamma Rho Inc. and Zeta Phi Beta Inc.
In 1972 Provost Kelly informed those units who turned in recommendations for salary increases that, "As a top priority, we ask you to consider the salaries of all minorities and all women paid from 18141 funds in your school to determine whether their pay is appropriate on the basis of merit."
In the 1972-73 Annual Report Chancellor Caldwell reported that William Maxwell had been appointed Assistant Dean of Education. This was our first African-American appointee as an Assistant or Associate Dean of an academic school.
It was at about this time that the School of Liberal Arts proposed to either drop geography or its black politics course. Both were taught by temporary part-time faculty and geography had a larger enrollment. In prior years the funds had come from the Dean's reserves and now were committed to hiring a permanent faculty member in another department. We decided to give them the extra funds needed to keep both courses going. The technique of saying we have no funds and will need to discontinue a project considered vital by the Provost was used frequently. In 1973 Dean Tilman wrote the Provost and asked for three new positions to hire three black faculty. Dr. Kelly asked me to find out how many vacant and uncommitted positions the Dean had. I reported to him that he had several. Provost Kelly wrote, "Does your request given in your memorandum of April 19 imply that you will hire blacks only if we give you new positions? If you were sincerely interested in hiring the 'three good blacks' you mentioned, could you not find some positions within your own school without help from this office?" I don't recall how we worked out a compromise, but we did not lose the three because of a lack of positions. In addition to trying to increase the number of African-American faculty, we were also very much interested in trying to increase the number of graduate students. Dr. Kelly responded favorably to an inquiry about our interest in participating in a plan to increase black graduate students. Dean Peterson also agreed. He said that our only reservations centered on the need for additional resources. "Our out-of-State tuition was increased substantially this year. We do want to locate and encourage more black graduate students, especially in the fields we offer." Although we could and did award black students teaching and research assistantships, we had almost no scholarships at the graduate levels which was a major component of the proposed program. It was not until the Office of Civil Rights approved our plans in the mid seventies that the state of North Carolina began to provide additional incentive funds which served as scholarship funds for the recruitment of black graduate students.
Our Affirmative Action Plan of 1973 was of course, a part of the BOG System Plan which had been submitted to HEW. HEW had informed us that a preliminary evaluation of the proposed Affirmative Action Compliance Program had been completed and that for the most part the proposed NCSU plan was responsive to the HEW requests for corrective actions relating to Executive Order 11375. We were at that time preparing additional information requested by HEW before final evaluation of the plan could be completed. As all know, it would not be long before the Courts would rule that the plans of several states including North Carolina were not satisfactory. The letter came on May 21, 1973, which essentially said that the dual system has not yet been fully disestablished in North Carolina. It also said that "it will be necessary for this Office to receive an acceptable plan, in advance of the June 16 deadline set by the court. We therefore, must request the submission of a plan by June 11." The Board of Governors submitted its revised plan on June 8, 1973. It was not until much later that the courts finally ruled that our plans were satisfactory after being revised many times over several years and occasionally believing that they were approved and then not approved. In the intervening years we spent many hours revising plans and goals, but we continued to do those things that we had committed ourselves to do in the recruitment of staff, faculty and students. Although many people were involved in the preparation of NCSU's portion of the BOG plans over the years, it was a major responsibility of the Equal Employment Opportunity Officer and later, when the title was changed, the Affirmative Action Officer to prepare and coordinate NCSU's efforts. At this time we reported that we had 22 black faculty in all ranks. For a brief time in 1973-74, Mr. William Simpson served as Affirmative Action Officer between Dr. Clauston Jenkins who had been appointed as Equal Opportunity Officer in 1972 and Dr. Larry Clark who joined us in 1974.
On June 8, 1973, Provost Kelly wrote:
On September 17, 1973, Mr. Lewis Bryson of the Atlanta Office of Civil Rights requested additional information. Chancellor Caldwell responded, in a letter of September 18, 1973, and said that "your letter was received on September 17 in this office. It requests certain information on our personnel and goal commitments." He said that we would try to provide the information within the time requested which was 15 days from the receipt of the letter. On November 10, 1973, Peter E. Holmes, Director of the Office of Civil Rights in HEW, wrote to Governor Holshouser in a 16 page letter that our "current submission falls short of complying with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964." Mr. Simpson, the Chancellor, the Office of Institutional Research, Dr. Gehle and several others of us in the Provost Office, were inundated with attending meetings and the gathering of data for another resubmission. On January 29, 1974, we had a visit by several officials from HEW who were visiting, meeting officials and students and taking a tour of facilities over a several day period at the five predominately black campuses and at NCSU, UNC-Chapel Hill and UNC-Greensboro. I represented the Provost in those meetings at NCSU, and I was one of the guides for the campus tour. I thought that the visit was not a complete success but not a disaster either. We resubmitted another of our revised plans again on February 18, 1974.
After the Chancellor's staff meeting on June 3, 1974, I wrote to Dr. Kelly and said that Chancellor Caldwell reported several recommendations were mentioned at the BOG meeting on March 31, 1974. The note said:
On September 17, 1974, I told the Faculty Senate that a copy of the Revised State Plan for the Further Elimination of Racial Duality in the Public Post-Secondary Educational System would go to the Senate, the Library and the office of each dean. On July 19, 1974, Mr. Holmes of the HEW Office of Civil Rights wrote Governor Holshouser that The Revised North Carolina Plan was accepted.
In 1974 the first African-American woman to receive an Ph. D. from NCSU was Nanette Smith Henderson. Her degree was in Plant Pathology. In the fall of 1974 our enrollment of African-Americans had risen from 2% to 3% with that year's freshman enrollment being 5%.
Chancellor Caldwell influenced my beliefs and behavior concerning the need for changes and opportunities for African-Americans at universities very much. Larry Clark helped me to see that the issue was more than just integration which had come to mean to so many the merger of African-American culture into our Western European culture. He helped me to see that the need was more a matter of having many cultures, rather than the dilution of one and its inevitable loss. Many people shaped my behavior as Provost, but in matters of race and gender, Caldwell and Clark were most influential. As the Assistant Provost handling the details of curriculum and academic personnel, it was good to have Chancellor Caldwell, Provost Kelly and me all singing the same tune.
When I became Provost, a part of my philosophy concerning race issues was that we should do what is right for moral reasons. There was no way that any rational person could fail to see that blacks had been denied equal opportunity and although the law supposedly gave them equal opportunity, this did not exist. It was our responsibility to see that this opportunity would no longer be denied. I believed in equal opportunity, but I understood that if we continued to consider only those same old values and criteria in selecting the "best" and did not provide opportunity to those capable of doing the job, little change would occur. For this reason I felt that we had to invest in those qualified and capable. In this under-represented area the fact that you were qualified, very good and black meant that you should be given a chance to succeed. This really meant that if the system could find two of equal quality it probably also meant that the black person had been under valued. I felt that this country could not survive if so large a portion of its population was contributing below their potential. For patriotic reasons and country survival value, the least we could do was to ascertain that at NCSU we would give blacks a chance. I learned quickly that playing on moral values and leaving matters in the hands of others to do the right thing frequently would not work. Many of the things which were accomplished while I was Provost was with the help of others. We were trying to do positive things, to be active and even pushy at times.
Each year when I asked deans to outline their needs in their requests for new positions, I reminded them that their requests should include positions "needed to meet your affirmative action guidelines for blacks and women which cannot be met with positions to be vacated by retirements." In my letters of position allocations to deans or to other units, I always reviewed the progress of our efforts in meeting our affirmative action goals for women and blacks.
As we set up our affirmative action structure on campus under Dr. Clark's direction, we set up each school as a separate unit with additional affirmative action units in Student Affairs, Libraries, Business Affairs, University Extension and Special Units. Each had an affirmative action coordinator in the school or unit who reported to the dean or to other appropriate administrators and who was accessible to Dr. Clark. Each worked within their own units to develop goals of employees in the following groups of personnel: EPA Non-Faculty, EPA Faculty and SPA employees. Goals were set for race and gender. This plan then got all of the units and even departments or groups of departments to set their goals and make them a part of the program. We hoped that this technique would make our faculty in each unit feel responsible for reaching the set goals, and generally it did. In a few cases, departments or units set goals above those that we would have considered minimal, but in a few other cases we did have to ask a unit to reconsider their goals and to try to come up with a higher goal. Goals were set on the basis of the number of new doctorates in the field (or the appropriate terminal degree for the field) and was also based on estimates of vacancies to occur and on anticipated increases in faculty or staff in the unit. For SPA employees the goals were set on availability figure of personnel in the field using other manpower data.
In the minutes of the Faculty Senate in February the Good Neighbor Council reported that they endorsed the proposal of Dr. Clark's that a Race Relations Workshop be conducted here by Urban Crises, Inc. The first was held on February 27 and 28, 1975. I attended this first workshop. This group held workshops here for many years. Most administrators, student leaders and many faculty attended. C. T. Vivian, who held these workshops, continues to come to the campus for a conference, a workshop or a meeting almost every year. Our affirmative action goals for July 1, 1976, were stated as 44 black faculty; in October of 1974 we had 17. The goal for women faculty was 114; in October of 1974 we had 74.
I found a note to Chancellor Caldwell from me dated January 7, 1975, about our newly submitted plans which read as follows, "The recent article in The News and Observer made it sound as if HEW, Atlanta, had rejected our Affirmative Action Proposal. Dr. Clark checked with Richard Robinson an attorney on the UNC BOG staff. The article misinterpreted Mr. Robinson. Our plans are still under review and have not been returned."
While HEW staff and the courts were at work and the litigation was going backwards and forwards, we felt a strong commitment to succeed or at least to make as much progress as we could. We proceeded, as did the other institutions of the UNC BOG system, with our affirmative action goals and continued to strive to give African-American students a chance to enroll and to succeed. A very special effort in this area was the University Transition Program. A substantial number of students admitted in this program have graduated from NCSU, and several have pursued their doctorates at NCSU and at other universities. We did take a chance and the graduation rate was relatively low, but I believe that our effort has paid off well. Another area was the extra effort in the admissions office expended in the recruitment of African-American students. Although we had other programs for helping these students to survive, it was obvious that not enough was being done. Many of these efforts are covered in Chapter One in Duties of Assistant and Associate Provosts and in Chapter VII in Undergraduate Studies and in Academic Skills.
In 1975, Dr. Clark proposed that we sponsor a conference on Minorities in graduate programs. He said that nationally blacks received 2.7% of the doctorates awarded in 1973. Of these 60% were in education. "Thus, the prospects are not bright for any substantial number of blacks being available for faculty appointments in either black or white institutions in the near future unless graduate and professional schools develop a greater sense of urgency about this situation. I suggest that we here at NCSU give some attention to increasing the graduate enrollment of qualified blacks." The conference was to include individuals from North Carolina's predominately black institutions, Pembroke State University and NCSU.
Although in most cases faculties encouraged their undergraduate students to go to other universities for graduate degrees, we encouraged our graduate programs first to convince blacks to go to graduate school. If it would help to increase the numbers who went to graduate school, they should recruit actively more of the black students to stay and get graduate degrees at NCSU. In a few cases this has led to our being able to hire the only new blacks in the nation in a particular field and they obtained their doctorates at NCSU. One example which was successful was the school of Textiles. Others who have doctorates from NCSU and who are now on the NCSU faculty were mentioned earlier in this section. Also in 1975, Dr. Clark reported that we increased our black faculty by four in 1974-75 and our non-faculty EPA by two, yet we had a net loss of 11 black SPA personnel that year.
On May 28, 1976, I allocated new positions to the Schools. At this time I was still not saying that a certain number of positions had to be filled by blacks or women. I did say:
It was about this time that Dr. Clark suggested that he and I visit each dean each year in their offices to remind them of their goals and their progress or lack of progress in the hiring of both blacks and women. It was not that the deans did not know the goals and their progress in meeting them, it was to place a strong emphasis on NCSU's commitment, that we expected a strong commitment on their parts and that we expected success. On August 31, 1976, Dr. Clark reported that as of June 1, 1976, we had a total of 31 EPA non-faculty, 18 black full-time faculty members and 553 full-time Black SPA employees.
At the May 2, 1977, meeting of President Friday's Administrative Council there was a lengthy discussion of the Adams vs. Califano trial, and President Friday discussed a meeting with the HEW staff. In his remarks to the Board of Governors on April 8, 1977, President Friday reported that Judge Pratt of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia had, "in an order, directed the Department of Health Education and Welfare to invalidate the desegregation plans of North Carolina and five other states, approved by HEW in 1974, and to require these states to prepare and file with HEW this summer desegregation plans that will conform to guidelines to be prepared by HEW." This was a lengthy speech and it was followed some days later by specific details required for a new plan. This became a major activity for Dr. Clark and many others on our campus as they prepared materials for the BOG staff who had to prepare the new plan.
On July 2, 1977, the Governor received a letter from HEW saying that the revised plan must be submitted in 60 days and that the Office of Civil rights in HEW would then have 120 days to respond to the new plan. I recall our distress with the short time that we had to get the plan in, and the fact that HEW could take twice as much time to study and to respond as we had to develop the plan. Early in September the plan Phase II was submitted. Dr. Clark wrote on May 4, 1978:
The statement goes on to say that there will be greater responsibility on each chief academic officer in developing and carrying our affirmative action plans. It also said, "The revised plans must be completed in 60 to 75 days after approval or disapproval of the State Plan II. The plans will be developed for five years ending on June 30, 1983."
On October 24, 1978, Mr. Ronald Butler reported to the Faculty Senate on the findings of a Special Task Force appointed by Chancellor Thomas to study NCSU's image in the black community. That report and the discussion can be found in the Senate's minutes of 1978-79 on pages 57-63. I will quote only a very few comments. Needless to say our image was horrible. "North Carolina State University is a very conservative institution and is viewed as racist and red-necked. We do not really know the black community; we don't communicate effectively. Our negative image may be hurting our enrollment of Black students, especially from Wake County. We enrolled only eight Black students from Wake last year. I know from experience that it can be very frustrating to apply for a job at this University. I interviewed for many positions for which I felt qualified, but I ended up in housekeeping. Did you know that there are still lounges on this campus where the maids and janitors do not feel welcome to eat their lunches, even though the room is often empty. N. C. State is in the community, but not of the community. State's image to many blacks is still: if you want to be a farmer, go to State. There is a need to communicate our programs. State is constantly put down in the Black community. I attended NCSU for my master's degree and experienced behavior which justifies your image." The report prepared by this committee was distributed widely. Dr. Clark served on the Task Force. The task force recommended 16 specific changes, many of which have been implemented, at least in part, and some of these have exceeded the scope of the original recommendation. We had shown a video for several years that was developed shortly after Dr. Clark came to NCSU and it was now out of date. In the spring of 1979 another was developed which was widely shown on campus as a part of the image issue.
In 1978 Chancellor Joab Thomas held the first Brotherhood Diner and our honoree was Dr. Samual Nesbritt. The guest speaker for the evening was Dr. Ozell Sutton from Atlanta, Georgia. Our Brotherhood dinner was not institutionalized until 1982 after Chancellor Bruce Poulton came to NCSU.
In 1978 we reported on a variety of new and current initiatives to increase the enrollment of minority students to the President and to the staff of BOG. I will list a sample of these.
The peer student program was initiated first in SALS. Two upper-class black students were hired to contact currently enrolled black students and new students during the year and to advise and encourage them to seek assistance and to inform them where the assistance could be obtained when needed. It was later that this program was expanded by Vice Chancellors Talley and Stafford to a Peer Mentor program so that successful African-American upper-class students were mentors for all entering freshmen. It was at about this time that we began to add or expand compensatory courses in English, mathematics and reading primarily for those students who came with academic deficiencies. While one objective was to overcome deficiencies for the black students and to help them to succeed at NCSU, it turned out that they were needed by many of the white students too.
It was at about this time that I realized that the departments and schools would not add enough black faculty to meet our affirmative action goals without further encouragement. It was a disappointment to me to learn that Dr. Clark's and my encouragement to do what was right did not work adequately, but I now knew that units had, in their own minds, other goals of high or even higher priority. With this knowledge I finally had found a procedure that worked. People really worked hard to recruit for and to get the positions for their units. So I began the practice of continuing to encourage the filling of newly allocated and vacant positions with blacks and females, but I also reserved a set of positions each year from this time until I retired that could only be filled with blacks. In other words, if you could find a black faculty member who would come to NCSU you would get likely get an extra position. This was not completely open-ended, but it nearly was. While I did not set up a similar number of positions for women, I tried to make certain that we did not fail to hire a female faculty member because of the lack of positions. This is described further in the preceding section on women. We were at this time making much better progress in most areas in finding female faculty. The number of black faculty in the national pool was still very small.
On March 16, 1979, I allocated a position to the Graduate school for an Assistant Dean for Minority affairs. We had decided to award the position when funds became available, so the Graduate School had already selected Dr. Witherspoon for the position at the time that I obtained and allocated the funds. Dr. Witherspoon was supposed to retain a research commitment in his department and it was expected that he would help the campus in recruiting and advise units on better methods for recruiting black graduate students. He was also to help the entire campus community understand better the concerns and problems of black graduate students. Dr. Witherspoon developed the agenda for the position and developed one of the outstanding networks in the nation for the recruitment of black graduate students to NCSU. He became the person that black graduate students went to when they had academic problems they could not get resolved elsewhere. He became a mentor to them for they came to see him about personal problems too. In this position Dr. Witherspoon managed the Minority Presence Grant Funds appropriated to NCSU via the BOG. He allocated these funds primarily as a supplement to other small assistantship funds to individual students and to students who did not have assistantships. We began to reward him primarily for his efforts in the Graduate School rather than for his contributions to the Department of Botany.
On May 21, 1979, Dr. Jenkins who had obtained a law degree from UNC-CH and was now our University Attorney informed Dr. Clark, Mr. Worsley and me that we would soon be involved in an affirmative action compliance review. He advised us to get ready for such a review. This always happened if an institution received a grant of $1,000,000 or more and this was to be our first one-million-dollar-grant-caused investigation. He said that based on the experience at other institutions, we could count on the entire process being hurried with resulting pressure on us to be able to respond quickly to reasonable requests for information. He said that at UNC-Chapel Hill which had recently undergone a similar review, they were requested to provide information within three working days. We then were given a list of items that had been requested there and proceeded to gather the information which indeed was requested later and with a short notice for compliance. We would never have been able to have generated this data on time without the advanced warning. Thank goodness we now can retrieve data about faculty much faster because of the computer. We later had many more grants of that magnitude. Most grants reviews at NCSU were reviewed with the Department of Labor. Except for the first review we had so many grants of that magnitude that we were rarely reviewed more than once a year, and thank goodness not even every year.
On June 12 ,1978, HEW provisionally accepted the State Plan II for the Elimination of Racial Duality. On February 21, the HEW team, consisting among others of David Tatel and Mary Berry, came to NCSU. They were visiting all of the predominately black campuses and the NCSU, UNC-CH and UNC-Greensboro campuses as well as the General Administration. This was a very tedious and nerve-wracking visit. The group visiting us, for some reason, wanted to visit several buildings where there might be autoclaves although these were not on the original itinerary. We visited most originally scheduled areas but not all. We also visited several not on the schedule. Since the visitors were late in arriving, in several cases there were no persons around in the unscheduled areas to tell them what was going on in this or that laboratory. In Mechanical Engineering an undergraduate student was the only person present in the building. He was working on a senior project and did a magnificent job explaining his project. I was proud of him and later told him, his department head and dean. I did the best job of explaining that I could. I later labeled this as the "visit to the autoclaves." It did not seem that the visiting team was here to see what we were doing and that their minds were made up already. Many conferences were held over the next two months between HEW and UNC. On March 26, 1979, the University was informed that HEW had rejected the State Plan. On April 25, 1979, after attending a meeting called by President Friday that Chancellor Thomas couldn't attend, I wrote the Chancellor saying: "The President indicated that Califano was scheduled to start deferring grants effective May 2, 1979." This was so very important to us for almost all of our research funds came from the federal government. "The University filed an injunction against HEW in the Eastern District Court at 4 p. m. on April 24, 1979. You will receive a copy of the 80 plus page action. If we do not win here, then the process will take the administrative proceedings route."
At a Faculty Senate meeting on August 26, 1980, I reported that we were well on our way to meeting our goals in tenure track positions. We had 26 black faculty with a goal of 36 by 1983. We had 124 females in the tenure track with a goal of 132. At the general faculty meeting I did remind the faculty that we had a net gain of only three new blacks and nine new females.
In 1980 Chancellor Thomas received the following letter related to the Race Relations Seminars from Elizabeth Wheeler who was Head of the History Department. Some controversy on campus was developing about whether they should continue. She wrote:
And they were continued.
On April 24, 1979, the Consent Decree was issued by the federal court and the fight between The State of North Carolina, in so far as the UNC System was concerned, was ended. I did call for a number of new initiatives, but we had continued to do those things called for in our earlier plan and were thereby nearly on target to accomplish our goals. While progress was being made in all areas we were still not at the enrollment levels we had wanted and were working towards in undergraduate enrollment, nor were we moving as well as desired in the arena of producing more blacks with doctorates at NCSU. The entire country was not succeeding in this faculty production arena so while we were not achieving our goals for black faculty we were making progress. These goals always seemed to be just beyond our grasp. When we hired four or six new faculty it seemed that we lost two or three of those already present to better offers, not always in salary, but because of such things as working conditions and fringe benefits.
In 1982 we received a scare. We thought that the Federal Government was about to cut our federal funds for a lack of compliance with Title VI. It seemed that we were now on a list put out by the Office of Equal Opportunity in the Department of Education. It turned out that this was a mistake. It took a lot of time on the part of Henry Smith, the Dean for Research, and others to get us off the no-awards lists of federal agencies. This was essential so that our grants for research would not be withheld.
In 1982 in a letter to Governor Hunt whose services we sought, I described that we, Dr. Clark and his staff and Media Services in SHASS, were about to make a videotape of interviews which would document the progress of Black involvement and enrollment at this University from 1956 to 1982. In 1982 Dr. Talley made a number of proposals that would help in the recruitment and retention of black students to the Chancellor. Many of these were adopted. Some examples were, "To coordinate admissions and financial aid efforts so that all eligible minority students receive prompt and maximum packages of financial aid." He also proposed giving upper-class black students a chance to live on campus rather than just being in the lottery. He proposed that we develop a Freshman Year Division on campus and to provide separate advisors for these students. This was the Chancellor's idea too. When it was studied by the schools the idea didn't fly. He also proposed to revise the current social and cultural programs available in the Student Center and in the Residence Life Division. He made other proposals which would have required us to hire more minority faculty and to assign them to functions with black students. These were not put into place for we could not have found the needed black faculty, and those that we did hire wanted to be part of their disciplines instead of being in some other unit. Almost all did have concerns about the progress of black students, and they gave their time and effort generously to help black students succeed academically at NCSU.
Vice Chancellor Talley was concerned that some persons on campus felt that Student Affairs was anti-black. I don't know where this came from, for back in the early and mid-seventies, when we were trying so hard to get some blacks hired among our faculty and EPA personnel, Dr. Talley took the lead and required that some positions be filled by black candidates. He was the first administrator of a major unit to take such a stand. Dr. Stafford continued this effort when he replaced Dr. Talley.
In 1984 Dean Hamby wrote Chancellor Poulton and commented on the School of Textile's efforts to recruit black students. Some of the things mentioned included the following. Textiles was the first school on campus to supplement the activities of the Admissions Office to actively recruit black students. They also were the first to print a brochure especially designed for recruiting black students and this was done some time before any court action. It was done because, "We felt impelled to take a leadership posture and because the industry was in need of management development personnel." They had awarded two out of 16 of the North Carolina Textile Foundation's Merit Awards to blacks, and had graduated fifty-six blacks over the last five years. They developed a special program to improve advising and counseling and "to improve the atmosphere, academic performance, and thus retention of black students." He goes on to say that the recruiting of graduate students was still a problem. He said, "We have tried all of the ideas that have been suggested to us plus some of our own but with unacceptable results. We will continue with additional effort this coming year. The need for black graduate students is even greater than that for undergraduates."
On April 20, 1984, Dr. Clark reported on the undergraduate merit scholarships awarded by schools at NCSU. The numbers by school were as follows: SALS, 3; Design, 0; Education 10; Engineering, 31; Forestry had none designated for black students, but did award scholarships to blacks; Humanities, 0; PAMS, 0; and Textiles 9. Each of the schools did award other non-designated scholarships to blacks. The University had 50 such scholarships that were not earmarked for students in a particular school and were awarded to the best black applicants who had no other scholarships.
On April 24, 1984, Dr. Clark reported on progress in meeting the Consent Decree goals to the Faculty Senate. The minutes read as follows:
Several Senators expressed the need to improve the retention rate of blacks without lowering standards. Dr. Clark responded, "There is a need for workshops within the white faculty. The black student in most cases will not seek help unless it is a crises situation because of the stigma often associated with seeking help. Our white colleagues need to be aware of this and seek out black students who are in difficulty." He added that as long as NCSU maintains a 2.0 standard for graduation, the GPA computation under consideration will not lower standards.
It was in 1985 that we decided to try a new approach. We decided to lower our admissions guidelines for the University Predicted GPA for black students with the hope that if we provided them with more assistance with the compensatory courses now in place and the summer Transition Program, that we might be able to have more of these students succeed academically at NCSU. We admitted a few black students with a UPGA below 1.5 and a few as low as 1.25. This experiment, needless to say, did not succeed, and we lost almost all of this lower echelon of admitted students. Thus we came to the conclusion that we needed to stick to our guidelines except for a few selected special student exceptions for admissions (see the Admissions section in Chapter Six). We agreed that we simply couldn't admit students at this level of preparation again. We simply did not have in place what the students needed to make them successful. Thus, we realized that we would not be able to use this strategy to make progress and achieve our goal of 10.2%. It did not seem that the population of students in the academic range required to succeed at NCSU was increasing in high school and the competition for their recruitment grew fiercer every year. We simply had too few large scholarships to compete for most of the most academically qualified black high school graduates. Our greatest hope to increase the enrollment of black undergraduate students was to increase retention of those already enrolled. We looked at the admissions criteria for the UPGA (we later called this the Admissions Index or AI). We knew that we admitted, on the average, black freshmen with slightly better academic credentials than did UNC-CH, but we flunked more and had more drop out, while UNC-CH graduated more. The reason that we knew this was true was that the staff at BOG told us every year when we had our Consent Decree conference on the numbers of black students admitted, retained, graduated and enrolled.
We began to try the new approach mentioned by Dr. Clark in his remarks to the Senate, about the minority coordinators to assist in student retention. In 1981 the School of Engineering did have a full-time EPA black coordinator in the Dean's Office who was working with black students and helping them to solve their problems with some success. We had been struggling with ideas of how we might provide more assistance to black students, for our retention wasn't nearly as good as it needed to be. Then we began to establish, over time, a Coordinator for African-American Student Affairs in each school. The last school to get a coordinator was the School of Design, which had the smallest number of African-American students. Charles Joyner filled this position in addition to his other duties. This person in each school would get to know these students and assist them in getting help to solve their problems. We also hoped that it would provide an African-American professional whom the students would trust and come to with academic and other problems before these problems became acute and before the students left us. This goal was accomplished and engineering now has several persons who work in this area today. The group from the schools/colleges now meets frequently to share ideas, problems and solutions. Each coordinator reported to their school dean, but they also were called together by Dr. Clark. After Dr. Witherspoon became Associate Provost, he assumed the responsibility to provide advice and coordination to this group.
The first reference to the possibility of a new African-American Cultural Center that I noted was in a letter of November 25, 1984, from Chancellor Poulton. He also talked about the possible renovation of the building that was then used as a Cultural Center (the old Print Shop building).
In 1984 Dr. Jenkins, our University Attorney, reported on progress towards the Consent Decree goals. It looked as if we would not reach the goal of 10.2% black enrollment by 1986 at our pace of progress. Dr. Jenkins did present the results of our effort in a positive way. He said that our black enrollment had increased by 700% since 1972 and that we had an increase of 32% in our black enrollment and only 4% in white enrollment since 1980. He also said that NCSU had a larger black enrollment than Elizabeth City State University and greater than any private black institution in North Carolina. In a few more years Chancellor Poulton would begin to say that we had the largest black enrollment of any institutions in the State except North Carolina A & T State University and North Carolina Central University. This was still true in 1993, but we still had not reached the 10.2 % black enrollment goal.
On January 8, 1985, Vice Chancellor Turner wrote Mr. Worsley requesting a one-half time position for a black coordinator to assist in the recruitment and retention of black adult students into the LifeLong Learning component of Extension and Public Service. Dr. Clark and I had advised Dr. Turner that this component had very few black students enrolled and that if we were to meet our goals enrollment of African-Americans in the Adult Credit Programs would have to be increased too. We had encouraged the hiring of such a person. The Chancellor wrote back to Dr. Turner and said that he (Turner) should find the money. Later that same year Dr. Turner developed a plan to try to market our adult offerings more effectively to blacks. When we next got some resources we did provide some funds for this purpose and Extension provided some. This effort continues. However, the desired enrollment of black adults has not been reached in this area of NCSU's activities.
On April 11, 1985, the Chancellor mentioned in correspondence with Dr. Turner that:
This is now called the Chancellor's African-American Community Leaders Advisory Committee. He continued and said, "By this letter I am asking that before you attempt to make your plans operational would you run them by Dr. Lawrence Clark, who is advising me in this effort, to make sure that they are consistent with the overall thrust that the university is making to the black community." The Chancellor and the Provost along with Dr. Clark had meetings with black citizens and advisory groups over the years. This action by Poulton institutionalized the concept and put it on a continuous basis.
The MSEN project is described in part in what follows, but it is a project started as an experimental project funded first by a grant first at NCSU, North Carolina Central University and UNC-CH.
In 1986 the Chancellor proposed that each year I get a statement from the Deans of progress of untenured black faculty towards tenure. It had become obvious that in some cases they were not making progress and black faculty were so hard to find that it was necessary for us to do all we could to assure that no deserving person failed to make tenure. I began to get these annual reports, and found that the activities of several faculty would not meet the guidelines for promotion or tenure. For example, we found one faculty member in a unit that would never recommend tenure without substantial research activity. Yet the person had undertaken and volunteered for a number of worthwhile projects and his till was filled, yet one could see that he would not make it. I could not understand why the department had let the person pursue these activities to the exclusion of a significant research project. After the dean saw the report he recognized the same problem. We were able to get this person's assignments changed, and the faculty member did gain tenure. In other cases we were not as successful. In many cases we asked the department head to spell out in writing specifically what the faculty must accomplish to gain tenure. In most cases this worked, but in a few others it did not. At least we felt that we had tried and those faculty that we lost because they did not gain tenure were adequately informed soon enough to overcome their deficiencies.
In 1986 the NCSU Trustees approved the appointment of the first African-American to the position of department head. Dr. Don C. Locke became Head of the Department of Counselor Education. Also in 1986, the Council on African-American Affairs resubmitted a proposal made by the same group in 1984 which had not been acted upon. These included: "Establish a series of African-American Speakers with the speakers being nationally recognized for their area of expertise. Hold a series of leadership conferences and/or retreats for African-American student leaders." This had been implemented by Student Affairs.
For a program based upon these activities to be successful, it must be recognized as a part of the overall educational process for African-American students. Thus, a heavy faculty involvement in developing the ideas and concepts for these programs is essential. However, it is not appropriate for African-American faculty to totally take the development of these programs while at the same time develop their professional careers for possible consideration of promotion and tenure. Thus, it is also important that appropriate staff be provided to develop, supervise, and control these activities. This staff must be coordinated by the appropriate University Official (or his/her designate). It is our opinion that such a program would best fit under the Academic Affairs part of the overall University structure.
Most of these were approved. At first the program reported through Dr. Clark and later through Dr. Witherspoon. After we obtained a Cultural Center, Dr. Iyailu Moses became its Director. The international activities have also progressed. We sent a group of 50 faculty and students first to Togo and to two additional countries in 1989. That was a great trip with interesting experiences for our students and faculty. The excitement of the students as I saw them off from Raleigh-Durham Airport was unbelievable. I told them that they couldn't leave unless they were properly dressed, so I gave each of them a plastic Wolfpack pin to wear in their lapels. When they returned they all had many souvenirs, and they brought me back one too, a gold Wolfpack lapel pin made in Togo. While there they visited other neighboring countries too and learned the difficulties and the bureaucracy of moving from one place to another. They also learned about the freedom which we have to take pictures and to go where we wish, but which does not exist in some other places. Dr. Clark raised the supporting funds for this trip by getting resources from a number of sources, and each school contributed some funds. Additional programs with colleges in Africa are mentioned in Chapter Six in the discussion on International Programs.
On December 22, 1986, in a letter to Chancellor Poulton, Richard Robinson acknowledged receipt of NCSU's revised affirmative action plan. The letter also stated that the BOG did extend for two additional years the commitments concerning employment established by the Consent Decree through December, 1988.
On April 28, 1987, Dr. Clark responded to a request from President C. D. Spangler Jr. to provide him with efforts made at NCSU in the recruitment and retention of black students and the employment of black faculty. Among the things described were the C. T. Vivian Seminars, the African-American Symposium for all entering black freshmen, the African-American Coordinators, Leadership Conferences for Black Students, Workshops for Black Faculty, the African-American Colloquium series to give black faculty the opportunity to present topics in their own disciplines, the Academic Skills Program, the University Transition Program, the Chancellor's Advisory Council, and bringing in consultants to advise about the retention of black students and other minorities. Some consultants mentioned included, Alfred Pasteur, William Sedlacek, Alexander Astin, Charles Nettles, and Jaqueline Fleming.
In 1988 Becky French, University Attorney, received a letter protesting a search in the History Department for a black faculty member for one of the positions which I was willing to allocate only if a black person was found and recommend for the position. The anonymous writer also said that ostensibly the department had been told that if they did not fill this position with a black they would never receive another position. Of course that threat was never made or implied, but it is quite probable that the dean confirmed that this position could only be filled by a black, which was true. Anonymous letters leave one with no way to combat false rumors. The advertisement for the history opening read as follows, "The History Department at North Carolina State University. Field and rank are open. Salary dependent on rank. The History Department has a special commitment to affirmative action. Minority candidates are encouraged to apply. Letters of application and curricula vitae" et cetera. This advertisement was obviously intended to mean that they wanted to hire an African-American. There were a number of persons on campus who objected to my allocating positions that could only be filled by a black or my allocating additional positions when a search turned up an excellent woman who was not the department's top choice. We did not require an additional affirmative action search for these additional positions. It is true that I would have given a second position if a department could have landed a second excellent black in a search. As I indicated earlier I used this technique because departments did not find many blacks without the reward of an extra position. I know of one case where a faculty member complained about my approach and gave as evidence that they had hired a black in his department without pressure. He didn't know that this was also a position that I gave the dean to give to this department to hire the first black faculty member in that department.
On April 27, 1988, we discussed additional needs, such as a better balance of black faculty to black students, an African-American Studies minor and a Racial Harassment Policy which would parallel the Sexual Harassment Policy. The Chancellor also reported that "Black students feel that they are not wanted on this campus." The Chancellor then said that there was no obvious solution except to promote an awareness of and concern for all students
In 1988 we adopted a revised policy on race relations. It read in part as follows:
On April 25, 1988, Dr. Clark wrote: "If you look in depth at the concerns that the African-American students around the nation on predominately white campuses have raised, you will find that these concerns grow out of a deeper struggle for the search for their own perceptions of reality. They are searching for a true sense of their own identity and groping with their own concept of humanity and fairness. In addition they are seeking a sense of acceptance and a feeling of belonging in environments that are alien." He also said:
On June 9, 1988, a committee to form a minor in African-American Studies was established by Dean Toole with Dr. Clark, Dr. Witherspoon and Dr. Grant and others as members. The committee was chaired by Dr. Tom Hammond. The minor was established and was housed in University Studies (now Multidisciplinary Studies). Dr. Hammond continued to chair the program in 1993. I do not know whether it achieved all those goals that Dr. Clark spelled out, but it has contributed to our efforts at the University.
On February 29, 1988, I wrote to the Coordinators of African American Advising and said:
It was obvious to us that most of the concerns and problems of students needed to be addressed at the classroom, at the department and at the school levels. Most of these issues were not all University encompassing. Issues needed to be heard more nearly in the environment where they could be resolved.
In 1988 on April 6, 1988, I wrote Dean Toole and said: "A black student told me that you teach Japanese, why not Swahili?" Toole responded, "Why not?" So we began to teach Swahili. At first we taught this language to fairly large sections and then to only a very few students. It is so difficult to keep knowledge of and interest in such an offering before the students when there are so many courses listed in the catalogue and in the schedule of courses.
On February 11, 1989, a Racial Harassment policy was adopted by the North Carolina State University Board of Trustees.
On November 4, 1989, I reported to the General Faculty meeting that we now had 64 African-American administrators and tenure track faculty, a net increase of nine over the previous year. Our goal for 1991 was 77. We had 213 women in this category with a goal of 248. This was sort of my swan song report and I said, "I wish to appeal to you for your assistance in helping us meet our goals in the hiring of African-American faculty and in the hiring of female faculty. We feel that many of our departments are quite committed to affirmative action, not only in the letter of the law, but in the spirit of the law as well. As we begin our second century of service to the people of North Carolina, we want to continue our efforts in being truly a People's University."
Dr. August Witherspoon came to the Provost's Office from the position of Associate Dean of the Graduate School and Professor of Botany. I had begun to realize the need for additional help in the area of undergraduate affairs dealing with the performance and problems of our African-American students. This was in addition to that which Dr. Clark could provide for he had so many other responsibilities. I recognized that we needed this more than I had realized after I substituted for Chancellor Poulton at an airing of grievances that our African-American Students held one evening in the Stewart Theater. I did not know what to expect, and had anticipated that I was going to answer questions of what the Provost was doing to try to enhance the academic success of African-American students. The questions started out with: Did you know? Or why did you let? It seemed to me that the students had put together all of their real and some possible but not real complaints here at NCSU and directed them to me for a response. Some were those that I had been working hardest to solve. Others dealt with matters that were occurring or had occurred in one or more department or classroom and that I had never heard before. The ones which I remember that my answers seemed to upset the students most were: "Why didn't our Black Literature courses count in meeting graduation requirements for literature?" I did not know that they didn't and had never heard the complaint before. It turned out that the faculty in SHASS did not accept these courses for its literature requirement, but that the course was accepted to satisfy literature requirements in all other schools and colleges at NCSU. When I investigated this and found that CHASS did not accept the course for the literature requirement, I asked the Dean to try to make a change. He raised the issue within his college, but the faculty did not want a change and continued not to accept the course for that basic requirement. The course could meet humanities electives in CHASS. Another thing that upset them was that the data they had on black faculty was in error and I told them so. When I looked into the matter I found that someone in Institutional Research had given them data but had omitted from the totals all black faculty who had any administrative responsibilities, including assistant department heads and a number of other professors who had some part-time administrative duties. I recall the young man accusing me of fabricating the numbers because my own staff had given him the other figures which he thought were correct. Of course, we had worked hard on the recruitment and hiring of black faculty and while I would have liked to have had more success, I felt that we were doing better than any other predominantly white institution that I knew of. There were a number of other issues raised that might have had more progress made toward their solution if the Provost had a staff-person whose responsibilities dealt with a greater interface with African-American students. Chancellor Poulton and I had an additional meeting with these and additional students later in the same year. When the opportunity came, we were able to get the funds which were used to create the facilitator position. So in 1989 we established a position for an Associate Provost as Facilitator of African-American Affairs. While not all of Witherspoon's duties dealt with African-American issues, most did. Any assignment might be given to this position on an ad hoc basis. In time the position responsibilities have come to include helping in the interview process of all associate professors, reviewing and making recommendations for faculty promotion and tenure, coordinating college dean reviews, and serving as liaison between faculty bodies and administration on academic matters. As the Facilitator of African-American Affairs, responsibilities included the University Recruitment and Retention Programs; the programmatic activities of the African-American Cultural Center; and a liaison role with African-American faculty and staff organizations and African-American student organizations. Witherspoon as a facilitator tried to bring greater sharing and exchange of ideas and successes among the Coordinators of African-American Student Affairs positions in each of the Schools and Colleges. He helped them to acquire information of successful activities at other universities. This position served as an ex-officio officer for the Chancellor's Advisory Council and the Chancellor's African-American Community Leaders Advisory Committee. Dr. Witherspoon also developed a course for all African-American Freshmen with similar objectives to those developed for the freshman course in Undergraduate Studies (see Chapter Seven).
He visualized and established the African-American Heritage Society which gives the students an opportunity to learn and to be positive about African-Americans' contributions in the various areas of knowledge. The plan was to see and learn about the scholarly contributions of a large number of African-Americans and to ensure that all African-American students had a link to their intellectual cultural heritage. Another part of this program was to bring in a significant number of today's African-American Scholars in addition to those who would visit the academic department of the University. Another major effort of Dr. Witherspoon's was to see the African-American Cultural Center come into being. He worked on this effort for many years before he joined my staff. As Associate Provost he was to help plan the development of the academic component of the program of this center. The concept was to make available to the entire NCSU community a variety of activities that would bring an array of cultural heritage and current African-American activities into the lives and educational activities of our Black students. The plan was for our students of all races to become involved and thereby provide for and enhance the education of all. He saw this as a way that we could develop a better understanding of cultural diversity and to enhance and to develop closer relations for people of all races.
In 1988 at the Dean's council meeting, we discussed the newly proposed African-American Heritage Societies. Dr. Witherspoon's description and rationale follows:
The organization was established through the efforts of Dr. Witherspoon and others at NCSU.
In 1989 I was surprised, proud and humbled to receive a plaque which was read and presented to me by Gregory Washington, which made it even more precious to me as he was a severe critic of mine earlier for our not making as much progress as we should have. It read as follows:
At the Brotherhood Dinner in 1991, Chancellor Monteith said:
In September 18, 1992, the Board of Trustees presented a Certificate of Appreciation to Dr. Witherspoon. The citation reads as follows:
Some additional activities that Dr. Clark was involved with that have not been mentioned in the preceding descriptions occurred between 1982 and 1992. Those that involved outreach included: (1) Petitioning the State Department of Public Instruction to make Algebra I mandatory for graduation from high school. This move would help African-Americans and others since Algebra I is the gateway in the college preparatory track; (2) Co-sponsored the African-American Parents' Educational Summit with Wake Public Schools; (3) Helped to establish, with the College of Physical Sciences, the Imhotep Program. In this program middle school students come to the university on Saturday to work in the sciences such as chemistry and physics. A similar program in the biological sciences now exists too; (4) Established the Saturday Program for Academic and Cultural Education (SPACE); (5) Established the Martin Luther King, Jr. Annual Festival. This program involves NCSU students, but it also brings many people in the community to the NCSU campus.
There were several internal activities which have not been mentioned that now exist on the NCSU campus. These include: (1) The Black Repertory Theater; (2) The Minority Career Fair; The number of African-American students with a 3.0 GPA or better has tripled; (4) We selected the first African-American dean. Dr. James Anderson is Dean of Undergraduate Studies.
In the fall of 1982 we had 1,398 black students or 7.4 % of our student body. In 1986 the number was 1,717 students and 9.4 % of the student body. In 1988 the numbers were 2,380 and 9.3%, in 1990 the numbers were 2332 and 8.7%, in 1993, 2488 and 9.2%. Although the numbers have grown somewhat the rate is slow and the percentage is slightly lower that the peak of 9.4% in 1986.
In 1988 we had 537 African-American freshmen, 524 sophomores, 417 juniors and 334 seniors. In 1990 we had 449 freshmen, 492 sophomores, 432 juniors and 395 seniors. In 1993 we had 482 freshmen, 491 sophomores, 491 juniors and 445 seniors.
This part of the story of the involvement of the Provost's Office and the Provost's staff ends as of June 30, 1993. So many of the problems discussed here continue to be only partially resolved. Most of the things which we, the Deans of the Faculty, and the Provosts, attempted are now in place and are continuing. The persons who now serve in the Provost's areas of responsibility have the commitment to continue efforts to provide equal opportunity for all and to insure that African-Americans make up a larger proportion of those that NCSU serves. There will be new innovations, new ideas and new programs that come into being. There will continue to be trials and successes and failures. Until much larger proportions of African-Americans have the educational levels and competencies needed to share in the American dream and have those skills and the education needed to make contributions in proportion to their population, our efforts will not be adequate. There is much to be done, but NCSU will continue to try and to try even harder to make these goals become a reality.