Size
81.75 linear feet
Location

For current information on the location of these materials, please consult the Special Collections Research Center Reference Staff.

Call number
MC 00236

The Tom Regan Papers contains correspondence, research files, drafts, reprints, and audiovisual materials that span the professional career of one of the most widely-known authorities on animal rights. The collection relates chiefly to the two major intellectual pursuits of Tom Regan's career, animal rights and the moral philosophy of G. E. Moore, although there is a limited amount of personal material and unrelated subjects. Also included are files related to his thirty years of service to North Carolina State University. Materials included in the unprocessed series are: One copy of "The Animals Voice Presents The Life and Times of Tom Regan, one brochure from the Culture and Animal Foundation, one dvd of Dr. Raymond Frey, printed email correspondence between Edward Zapala and Tom Regan, one copy of Zapala's thesis entitled "One Million Dogs: Tom Regan, the Worse-Off Principle, and the Abolition of the Use of Animal in Science."

Professor emeritus and former Department Head in the Philosophy Department at North Carolina State University, Tom Regan is a prolific writer on animal liberation and animal rights philosophy. The publication of Regan's The Case for Animal Rights marked a major advance in the philosophical underpinnings of the animal rights movement. This book brought the discussion of animal rights to new levels of serious attention within scholarly circles.

Biographical/historical note

Tom Regan was born Thomas Howard Regan on November 28, 1938, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Thiel College in 1960 with a degree in philosophy, and went on to receive both master's (1962) and Ph.D. (1966) degrees from the University of Virginia.

Regan's first professional appointment was as Instructor, and then Assistant Professor of Philosophy, at Sweet Briar College, 1965-1967. In 1967, he accepted the position of Assistant Professor of Philosophy at North Carolina State University. He was promoted to Associate Professor of Philosophy in 1972, and finally to Professor of Philosophy in 1978. Regan served as Head, Philosophy & Religion, North Carolina State University, from 1996 to 1999.

During his more than thirty years on the faculty, he received numerous awards for excellence in teaching; published scores of professional papers as well as more than twenty books; been awarded major international awards for film writing and direction; and presented hundreds of lectures throughout the United States and abroad. He was named the recipient of the William Quarles Holladay Medal, the highest honor NC State University can bestow on one of its faculty.

Regan's contributions to professional organizations and scholarship are significant. He is a member of numerous professional societies, and has held a variety of offices in them, including the North Carolina Philosophical Society; the American Society for Value Inquiry; the Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals; Ethics and Values in Science and Technology; and the American Philosophical Association's Committee on Medical Ethics. He has served on the editorial boards of a number of journals, including, Ethics, The Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics, and Ethics and the Environment.

Among his books, two ( The Case for Animal Rights and Bloomsbury's Prophet: G. E. Moore and the Development of His Moral Philosophy) were nominated for the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. The Case for Animal Rights was immediately recognized as a "modern classic" when it first appeared in 1983. It has been translated into several languages, including Swedish, Dutch, Italian, and German. Other of Tom Regan's books that touch on the topic of animal rights are All That Dwell Therein: Essays on Animal Rights and Environmental Ethics (1982) and Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science (1986).

For its part, Bloomsbury's Prophet has helped re-energize and re-direct Moorean scholarship in particular and the study of early twentieth century British philosophy in general. In addition to Bloomsbury's Prophet, Tom Regan's other major contributions to Moorean scholarship are Moore: The Early Essays (1987) and G. E. Moore: The Elements of Ethics (1991). He is co-founder and past president of the Moore Society.

Tom Regan's major film awards include the Silver Medal for We Are All Noah (International Film Festival of New York, 1986) and the Gold Medal for Voices I Have Heard (Houston International Film Festival, 1988).

A past recipient of a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship, and a past Fellow of the National Humanities Center, Regan's recently published work includes Defending Animal Rights and (with Carl Cohen) The Animal Rights Debate.

Tom Regan is married to the former Nancy Tirk, with whom he co-founded The Culture & Animals Foundation.

1938, November 28
Born Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
1960
A.B., Thiel College, Major in Philosophy, Minor in English
1962
Moore's Conception of Beauty
1962, June 17
Married Nancy Jane Tirk
1964 - 1965
Phillip Francis Dupont Fellow, University of Virginia
1965 - 1967
Instructor, then Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Sweet Briar College
1966
The Commendation Thesis (An Analysis of the Concept of Goodness
1966, October 8
Born, a son, Bryan
1967 - 1972
Assistant Professor of Philosophy, North Carolina State University
1972, 1976, 1980
International Directory of Biography
1969 - 1970
Outstanding Teacher, North Carolina State University
1970, November 24
Born, a daughter, Karen
1972
Summer Stipend, National Endowment for the Humanities
1972 - 1978
Associate Professor of Philosophy, North Carolina State University
1974 - 1975
Outstanding Teacher, North Carolina State University
1975
Who's Who in the South and Southwest
1977, Spring
Visiting Distinguished Scholar, University of Calgary
1977 - 1981
Alumni Distinguished Professor, North Carolina State University
1978, 1982
Directory of American Scholars
1978 -
Professor of Philosophy, North Carolina State University
1980
International Who's Who in Education
1980 - 1981
Fellowship, Category B, National Endowment for the Humanities
1982
Visiting Distinguished Scholar, Brooklyn College
1984 - 1985
Fellow, National Humanities Center
1986
The Gandhi Award, for Outstanding Contributions to the Animal Rights Movement
1986
Outstanding Alumni Award, Thiel College
1987
Outstanding Research Award, College of the Humanities and Social Sciences, North Carolina State University
1987
Joseph Wood Krutch Medal, Humane Society of the United States
1988
Feminism and Environmental Ethics
1988
Reconsidering Individualism
1993 - 1994
Outstanding Teacher, Master of Arts in Liberal Studies, North Carolina State University
1995
The Dunbar Lecture, Millsaps College
1996 - 1999
Head, Philosophy & Religion, North Carolina State University
1997
College of Humanities and Social Sciences UNC Board of Governors' Award for Excellence in Teaching
2000
The William Quarles Holladay Medal, North Carolina State University Board of Trustees
1972
Moore's Accounts of 'Right', Dialogue
1972
A Defense of Pacificism, The Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Spring. Reprinted in R. Wasserstrom, Today's Moral Problems, 1st edition, and in J.P. White, Assent/Dissent
1974
Understanding Philosophy
1975
McCloskey on Rational Ends: The Dilemma of Institutionism, The Journal of Value Inquiry
1975
The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism, The Canadian Journal of Philosophy, October. Portions reprinted in Tom Regan and Peter Singer, Animal Rights and Human Obligations (below) and in R. Wasserstrom, Today's Moral Problems, 2nd edition. Reprinted in a Spanish translation in a collection of essays edited by S. Castignone
1975
Animal Rights and Human Obligations. Edited with Peter Singer
1976
McCloskey on Why Animals Cannot Have Rights,Philosophical Quarterly
1976
Broadie's and Pybus' Treatment of Kant,Philosophy
1976
Feinberg on What Sorts of Beings Can Have Rights,The Southern Journal of Philosophy
1977
Narveson on Egoism and the Rights of Animals, The Canadian Journal of Philosophy
1977
Frey on Interests and Animal Rights, Philosophical Quarterly
1978
A Reply to Frey on Animal Rights (with Dale Jamieson), Analysis
1978
Defending the Belief in Animal Rights in Animals' Rights: A Symposium (Paterson & Ryder, eds.) London: Centaur. Reprinted, in a Spanish translation, in S. Castignone
1978
Fox's Critique of Animal Liberation,Ethics
1979
Singer's Critique of the Market,  Analysis
1980
On the Right to be Spared Gratuitous Suffering, Canadian Journal of Philosophy
1980
Animal Rights, Human Wrongs, Environmental Ethics, Spring. Reprinted in J. White, ed., Contemporary Moral Problems (1984) and, in a Polish translation, in Etyka
1980
Vegetarianism, Utilitarianism, and Animal Rights, Philosophy and Public Affairs
1980
Cruelty, Kindness, and Unnecessary Pain, Philosophy
1980
On the Connection Between Environmental Science and Environmental Ethics, Environmental Ethics
1980
Matters of Life and Death
1981
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic, Environmental Ethics, Spring. Reprinted in P. Werhane (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Human Rights
1981
Utilitarianism and Vegetarianism Again, Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals
1981
Animal Rights: An Introduction, in Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Ethics, Humanism and Medicine, University of Michigan (Alan R. Liss). Also in Animals in Education: The Use of Animals in High School Biology Classes and Science Fairs, H. McGriffin and N. Brownley, eds., The Institute for the Study of Animal Problems
1981
Animals and the Law: The Need for Reform, Proceedings of the International Conference on the Philosophy of Law
1982
Animal Rights, Human Wrongs, in H. Miller and W. Williams, eds., The Moral Foundations of Public Policy: Ethics and Animals
1982
Frey on Simple Desires, Mind
1982
Moore's Use of Butler's Maxim, Journal of Value Inquiry
1982
On the Ethics of the Use of Animals in Science, with D. Jamieson , in Tom Regan and D. VanDeVeer, eds., And Justice For All
1982
Against the Arguments for Whaling, in P. Wray, ed., The Human/Whale Connection (Center for Endangered Species)
1982
On the Ethics of the Use of Animals in Science, with D. Jamieson, Lab Animal
1982
Duties to Animals: Rawls's Dilemma, Society for the Study of Ethics and Animals
1982
And Justice For All: New Introductory Essays in Ethics and Social Policy. Co-edited with D. VanDeVeer
1982
All That Dwell Therein: Essays on Animal Rights and Environmental Ethics
1983
A Refutation of Utilitarianism, Canadian Journal of Philosophy
1983
Utility and Equality: Some Neglected Problems, Journal of Value Inquiry
1983
Just Business: New Introductory Essays in Business Ethics
1983
Earthbound: New Introductory Essays in Environmental Ethics
1983
The Case For Animal Rights
1984
Whales are Not Cetacean Resources, with Dale Jamieson, in M. W. Fox and L. D. Mickley (eds.), Advances in Animal Welfare Science (Dordrecht: Martin Nijhoff Publishers); reprinted in Whalewatcher: Journal of the American Cetacean Society
1985
The Other Victim, invited essay, The Hastings Center Report
1985
The Case for Animal Rights, In Defense of Animals, Peter Singer, ed., (Blackwells). Also in People, Penguins and Plastic Trees, C. Pierce and D. VanDeVeer
1985
Ethical Vegetarianism and Commercial Animal Agriculture, in Today's Moral Problems, third edition, R. Wasserstrom
1985
Honey Dribbles Down Your Fur: Remarks on Environmental Ethics, Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy
1985
Introduction, invited contribution to the Annual Convention of the Environmental Law Society, Stanford University Law School. Topic: Animal Rights and Environmental Law. Reprinted in The Newsletter, National Humanities Center
1985
The Case For Animal Rights
1986
"The Case for Animal Rights,M.W. Fox and L.D. Mickley, eds., Advances in Animal Welfare Science (Washington: The Humane Society of the United States
1986
Ill-gotten Gains, in T. Regan and D. VanDeVeer, eds., Health Care Ethics
1986
Pigs in Space!, Philosophica (Belgium), invited essay for special issue on the concept of The Moral Community. Also in Heaven and Earth, A. Linzey and P.J. Wexler
1987
The Rights of Humans and Other Animals, Acata Physolica Scandinavica
1986
Health Care Ethics: An Introduction. Co-edited with Donald VanDeVeer
1986
Matters of Life and Death
1986
Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science
1987
Allocation of Resources: Social and Political Factors, in Ethics in Emergency Medicine
1987
Love the Animals: Meditations and Prayers. Edited with Andrew Linzey
1987
Song of Creation: An Anthology of Poems in Priase of Animals. Edited with Andrew Linzey
1987
The Struggle for Animal Rights. International Society for Animal Rights
1987
Bloomsbury's Prophet: The Moral Philosophy of G.E. Moore
1987
G.E. Moore: The Early Essays
1988
Why Child Pornography is Wrong, in G. Scarre, ed., Ethics and Children
1988
Moore: The Liberator,Reason Papers
1988
Animals and Christianity. Co-edited with Andrew Linzey
1988
Animal Rights and Human Obligations. Second, revised edition. Co-edited with Peter Singer
1988
The Case for Animal Rights
1989
The Thee Generation, Journal of Social Philosophy
1989
The Struggle for Animal Rights. 2nd ed. International Society for Animal Rights
1990
Earthbound: Introductory Essays in Environmental Ethics
1990
I Dritti Animali. Italian translation of The Case for Animal Rights. Translated by Salvatore Veca
1991
Christianity and Animal Rights: The Challenge and the Promise, J. McDaniel, ed., The Liberator of Life
1991
The Theology of Everyday Life, Religion and World Community
1991
The Thee Generation: Reflections on the Coming Revolution
1992
Animal Rights, G. E. Moore,W. D. Ross. Entries in The Encyclopedia of Ethics, edited by L. Becker
1992
Does Environmental Ethics Rest on a Mistake? The Monist
1992
Animal Liberation: What's In a Name? O. Neumaier, et. al. (eds.), Applied Ethics and Its Foundations
1992
Christianity and the Oppression of Animals, J. McDaniel (ed.), Good News for Animals?
1992
The Moral Status of Chimpanzees, Peter Singer (ed.), The Chimpanzee Project
1992
The Case for Animal Rights, Baird and Rosenbaum (eds.), Animal Experimentation: The Moral Issue
1992
The Case for Animal Rights,  T.A. Mappes & J.S. Zembaty (eds.), Social Ethics
1992
The Case for Animal Rights,  Arthur Eastman (ed.), The Norton Reader
1992
The Case for Animal Rights, S. Sartis (ed.), Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Moral Issues
1992
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic,  P. Werhane (ed.), Ethical Issues in Business: A Philosophical Approach
1992
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic, Michaels and Bowie (eds.), Environmental Ethics
1992
Rotten to the Core? Reflections on the Traditional Core Curriculum in American Higher Education,  North Carolina Humanities
1992
G.E. Moore: The Elements of Ethics. Edited, with an Introduction
1993
The Consistency of Kant's Moral Philosophy,  R. Chadwick (ed.), Kant: Critical Assessments
1993
Environmental Ethics,  S. Armstrong-Buck and R. Botzler (eds.), Understanding the Environment
1993
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic, S. Armstrong-Buck and R. Botzler (eds.), Understanding the Environment
1993
Matters of Life and Death
1994
The Case for Animal Rights, J. B. Callicott
1994
The Case for Animal Rights, D. VanDeVeer and C. Pierce (eds.) The Environmental Ethics Book
1994
Animal Rights, Human Wrongs, Fred Westphal (ed.), Planet in Peril: Essays in Environmental Ethics
1994
Animal Welfare and Rights, W.T. Veach (ed.), Encyclopedia of Bioethics
1994
The Case for Animal Rights: A Decade's Passing, R.T. Hull (ed.), A Quarter Century of Value Inquiry
1994
Ethical Vegetarianism and Sustainable Agriculture, P. Allen (ed.), Food for the Future: Conditions and Contradictions of Sustainability
1994
All That Dwell Therein
1995
Feminism and Vivisection, J. Howie (ed.), The Wayne Leys Memorial Lectures
1995
Ivory Towers Should not a Prison Make, J. Sterba (ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Social Philosophy Conference
1995
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic, Andrew Brennan (ed.), Environmental Ethics
1995
Are Zoos Morally Defensible? Bryan Norton (ed.), Zoos on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife Conservation
1995
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic, Jill Bowman (ed), Environmental Issues: A Managerial Approach
1995
Die Begrundung von Tierrechten (The Case for Animal Rights), Angela Krebs (ed.), Naturethik
1995
Moore and Bloomsbury: The Myth and the Man, Paul Kieh l (ed.), Proceedings of the 1994 Wittgenstein Symposium
1995
Animal Rights, H. Potter (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy Supplement
1995
Ethical Vegetarianism and Commercial Animal Agriculture, Joram Haber (ed.), Ethics in the 90s
1995
The Animal Rights Position, Colman McCarthy (ed.), Peace Essays
1995
The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism, Gene Blocker (ed.), Applied Social and Political Philosophy
1995
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic, Gary Percesepe (ed.), Ethics
1995
Utilitarianism, Vegetarianism and Animal Rights, (Italian translation).  G. Ferranti (ed.), Etica Y Animali
1995
The Radical Egalitarian Case for Animal Rights, Louis P. Pojman
1995
The Case for Animal Rights, Angelika Krebs (ed.), Naturethik: Ein Reader
1995
The Case for Animals Rights, L.H. Paterson (ed.), The Norton Reader
1995
The Case for Animals Rights: A Decade's Passing, Richard T. Hall (ed.), A Quarter Century of Value Inquiry: Presidential Addresses of the American Society for Value Inquiry
1995
The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic, J. Bowman (ed.), Environmental Issues: A Managerial Approach
1996
Are Individual Rights Patriarchal? Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Ethics
1996
Animal Welfare and Rights, D. Bonchert (ed.),   Encyclopedia of Philosophy Supplement
1996
The Case for Animal Rights, Peter Valenti (ed.), Reading the Landscape, Writing a World
1996
The Case for Animal Rights, Lawrence M. Hinman (ed.), Contemporary Moral Issues: Diversity and Concensus
1996
The Case for Animal Rights, Hugh Lafollette (ed.), Practical Ethics
1996
Christians Are What Christians Eat, Roger C. Gottleib (ed.), This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment
1996
Animal Rights, Human Wrongs, D. Michelfelder and W. Wilcox (eds.), Applied Ethics in American Society
1996
A Movement's Means Create a Movement's Ends, With Gary Francione;  Andrew Harnack
1996
Allocation of Resources: Social and Political Factors. Ed. K. V. Iserson, et. al.Ethics in Emergency Medicine
1996
The Case for Animal Rights. Ed. Andrew Harnack. Animal Rights: Opposing Views
1996
The Case for Animal Rights. Ed. R. V. Percival. Law and the Environment: An Interdisciplinary Reader
1996
The Case for Animal Rights [Finnish Translation]. Eds. Yrjo Uurtimo and Vesa Jaaksi
1996
The Case for Animal Rights. Ed. H. LaFollette. Ethics in Practice
1996
The Case for Animal Rights. Ed. James White. Contemporary Ethical Issues
1996
The Case for Animal Rights. Eds. N. Rosenstand and R. Parker. Critical Issues
1996
The Case for Animal Rights. Ed. Richard Parker. Reading the Landscape: Writing a World
1996
On the Ethics of the Use of Animals in Science," with D. Jamieson. Eds. S. Gendin, L. Kleiman, E. Erwin. Ethical Issues in Research
1996
Implications of the Rights View. Eds. P. Schumaker, D. Kiel, T. Heilke. Political Voices: Contributors to Competing Ideologies in the 19th and 20th Centuries
1997
The Rights View. Eds. M. Bekoff and C. Meany. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare
1997
Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Ed. D. M. Bochert. Encyclopedia of Philosophy
1997
Animal Rights, Human Wrongs. Ed. D. Jacobs. Ways of Living
1997
The Case for Animal Rights. Eds. P. J. Marke and S. Kahn. The Moral Dimension
1998
The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism. Ed. Judith Boss. Moral Problems Anthology
1998
The Case for Animal Rights. [Finish translation] Ed. Vesa Jaaksi . Environmental Philosophy
1998
The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism. Ed. Lisa Portmess. Ethical Vegetarianism: A Book of Readings
1998
Rights Across Species. Ed. Otto Neumarer, et. al. Applied Ethics in a Troubled World
1998
The Case for Animal Rights
1999
Introduction. Ed. Peter Steeves
1999
The Case for Animal Rights. Eds. J. Olen and V. Barry. Applying Ethics: A Text with Readings
1999
The Case Against Animal Research. Eds. T. L. Beauchamp and L. Walters. Contemporary Isues in Bioethics
1999
On the Ethics of the Use of Animals in Science, with Dale Jamieson. Ed. P. Tittle. Ethical Issues in Business
1999
Philosophical Perspectives on Hunting. Ed. P. Cohen. Ethics and Wildlife
2000
Defending Animal Rights
2001
The Animal Rights Debate. With Carl Cohen
2001
The Case for Animal Rights

Scope/content

This collection contains correspondence, research files, drafts, published articles, audio visual materials, and artifacts. The primary foci of the collection are Tom Regan's two lifelong professional interests: Animal Rights, and the moral philosophy of G. E. Moore.These two subjects are treated fully through Regan's notes, writings, and presentations, as well as film and audio projects. Materials included in the unprocessed series are: One copy of "The Animals Voice Presents The Life and Times of Tom Regan, one brochure from the Culture and Animal Foundation, one dvd of Dr. Raymond Frey, printed email correspondence between Edward Zapala and Tom Regan, one copy of Zapala's thesis entitled "One Million Dogs: Tom Regan, the Worse-Off Principle, and the Abolition of the Use of Animal in Science." Also included are some unprocessed materials that include an undated VHS videotape and the VHS video tape (undated) and the program pamphlet: Tom Regan: A Celebration.

Custodial history

Gift from Tom Regan in October, 2000, 2002, and 2011.

Physical description

154 archival boxes, 2 halfboxes, 1 flatbox.

Arrangement

Original order has been maintained where possible throughout the collection. The designated series reflect the groupings created by Regan. Wherever possible all materials related to a specific publication, public appearance, or University course have been placed in those respective series. The two exceptions to this general rule are the personal and the professional series. The former contains correspondence from family members and others unconnected to Regan's professional life, and the latter contains correspondence that treat Regan's general professional career. Because of the variety of materials and the size of the collection the specific organizing rationale can be found in the series descriptions.

The series for this collection are:

  • Personal Papers
  • Research
  • Writings
  • Public Appearances
  • University
  • Professional
  • Reprints and Publications
  • Audiovisual Materials
  • Artifacts
  • Oversized Materials

Use of these materials

The nature of the NCSU Libraries' Special Collections means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine despite reasonable efforts. The NCSU Libraries claims only physical ownership of most Special Collections materials.

The materials from our collections are made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to U.S. Copyright law. The user must assume full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used for academic research or otherwise should be fully credited with the source.

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Tom Regan Papers, MC 00236, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries, Raleigh, NC

Source of acquisition

Gift of Tom Regan, 2000, 2002 and 2011 (Accession nos. 2000.0004, 2002.0005, 2011.0135, 2011.0136, 2011.0153)

Processing information

Processed by William M. Wisser; machine-readable finding aid created by Katherine M. Wisser, 2001; Finding updated July 2011 by Judy Allen Dodson.

Access to the collection

This collection is open for research; access requires at least 48 hours advance notice.

For more information contact us via mail, phone, or our web form.

Mailing address:
Special Collections Research Center
Box 7111
Raleigh, NC, 27695-7111

Phone: (919) 515-2273

Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Tom Regan Papers, MC 00236, Special Collections Research Center, North Carolina State University Libraries, Raleigh, NC

Use of these materials

The nature of the NCSU Libraries' Special Collections means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine despite reasonable efforts. The NCSU Libraries claims only physical ownership of most Special Collections materials.

The materials from our collections are made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to U.S. Copyright law. The user must assume full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used for academic research or otherwise should be fully credited with the source.