Carolus Linnaeus (1707 - 1778) founded the binomial system of nomenclature and the hierarchical system of classification. Born in Sweden, Carl von Linné became the leading botanist of his time. He is usually referred to as "Linnaeus," because his major works were written in Latin. Linnaeus was a creationist, like many other naturalists of his time. He was involved in a major debate on plant sexuality, taking the position that although plants were indeed sexual, they were entirely self-fertilizing and therefore fell below animals on the "scala naturae" both in structural and functional terms. Linnaeus abandoned the strictly linear view of biological relationships that was so popular for his own more diffuse, hierarchical arrangement. Linnaeus advocated an "artifical system" of plant classification that emphasized the number of reproductive organs to the near exclusion of all other characteristics. Contemporary botanists opposed Linnaeus' ideas.
Linnaeus's contributions to the sciences is evident to this day. The Linnean Society of London, established to honor Linnaeus in 1788, is the oldest specialized biological society in the world. The charter granted in 1802 states that it is "a Society for the Cultivation of the Science of Natural History in all its branches."
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Tal, om Märkwärdigheter uti Insecterne: Hållit för Wettenscaps Academien uti Auditorio Illustri, då Första Præsidentskapet Aflades, 1739 D. 3 October. Stockholm: Uti det Kongl. Tryckeriet, Hos Direcreuren Pet, Momma, 1739. Like many of Tippmann's books, there are handwritten notes tipped into the front of this volume.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Fauna Svecica: Sistens Animalia Sveciæ Regni; Quadrupedia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, Vermes, Distributa per Classes & Ordines, Genera & Species cum Differentiis Specierum, Synonymis Autorum, Nominibus Incolarum, Locis Habitationum, Descriptionibus Insectorum. Stockholmiæ: Sumtu & literis. Laurentii Salvii, 1746.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Amoenitates Academicae: Seu, Dissertationes Variae Physicae, Medicae, Botanicae Antehac Seorsim Editae Nunc Collectae et Auctae. Accedit Hypothesis Nova de Febrium Intermittentium Causa. Lugduni Batavorum: apud Cornelium Haak, 1749-1790.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Genera Plantarum Eorumque Characteres Naturales Secundum Numerum, Figuram, Situm, et Proportionem Omnium Fructificationis Partium. Editio Quinta ab Auctore. Holmiae, Impensis L. Salvii, 1754. This fifth edition of Genera Plantarum was an extremely important work on plant classification.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Systema Naturæ per Regna Tria Naturæ, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Charateribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. Holmiae: Impensis Direct, Laurentii Salvii, 1758. The tenth edition of Systema Naturae was the first application of binomial taxonomy in zoology. This established a new system for biological classification.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Caroli Linnaei, Fauna Svecica Sistens Animalia Sveciae Regni: Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, Vermes. Distributa per Classes & Ordines, Genera & Species, cum Differentiis Specierum, Synonymis Auctorum, Nominibus Incolarum, Locis Natalium, Descriptionibus Insectorum. Stockholmiae: Sumtu & Literis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1761.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Mantissa Plantarum altera, Generum editionis VI et Specierum ed. Holmiæ: Impensis Direct. L. Salvii, 1771. Supplement to Genera Plantarum and Species Plantarum.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. Caroli Linnæi Entomologia, Faunæ Suecicæ Descriptionibus Aucta; DD. Scopoli, Geoffroy, de Geer, Fabricii, Schrank. Lugduni: Sumptibus Piestre et Delamolliere, 1789.
Carl von Linné, 1707-1778. A General System of Nature: Through the Three Grand Kingdoms of Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals; Systematically Divided into Their Several Classes, Orders, Genera, Species, and Varieties, with Their Habitations, Manners, Economy, Structure, and Peculiarities. London: Printed for Lackington, Allen, and Co., Temple of the Muses, Finsbury-Square, 1806.
Translated from Gmelin, Fabricius, Willdenow, &c.; with a life of Linné, appropriate copper plates, and a dictionary explanatory of the terms that occur in the several departments of natural history by William Turton, 1762-1835. Plates by W. Evans, nineteenth century.
Fredrik Hasselquist, 1722-1752. Fredric Hasselquists ... Iter Palæstinum, Eller Resa til Heliga Landet, Förrättad Ifrån år 1749 til 1752, Med Beskrifningar, Rön, Anmärkningar, Öfver de Märkvärdigaste Naturalier, På Hennes Kongl. Maj:ts Befallning, Utgifven af Carl Linnæus. Stockholm: Trykt på L. Salvii kåstnad, 1757.
The Linnaean classification of plants and animals provided a framework of knowledge into which information about hitherto unknown organisms could be organized. His work provided a stimulus for further investigation and led his students to travel to remote lands for natural history studies. Fredrik Hasselquist was one of Linneaus's students in Sweden.
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